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If my paraphrase consists of several sentences, should a citation for the original source appear after each sentence?

No. The citation should appear only after the final sentence of the paraphrase. If, however, it will be unclear to your reader where your source’s idea begins, include the author of the source in your prose rather than in a parenthetical citation. For example, the following is a paraphrase from an essay by Naomi S. . . .

Published 12 April 2018

Is a compound subject a noun phrase for the purposes of abbreviating a title, or should I just use the first noun?

As section 3.2.1 of the MLA Handbook explains, when you need to shorten a title for a parenthetical citation, “give the first noun and any preceding adjectives, while excluding any initial article: a, an, the” (117). Thus, if a title consists of a compound subject, use only the first noun and any adjectives that precede it as the . . .

Published 11 April 2018

How do I cite a Twitter thread or conversation in my text and in my works-cited list?

A thread is a series of separately written but related tweets that are given a single URL. If you’re discussing the thread as a whole (rather than simply quoting an individual tweet in the thread), treat the thread as a collaborative work. As always, follow the MLA template of core elements.  Author Follow the guidelines . . .

Published 2 April 2018

When you cite from the same source in more than one paragraph and no other source intervenes, do you need to repeat the author’s name each time you start a new paragraph?

As the MLA Handbook notes, “[W]hen an entire paragraph is based on material from a single source,” you might “define a source in the text at the start” (125). If you continue to cite the same source in subsequent paragraphs and no other source intervenes, you do not need to identify the source again unless ambiguity would . . .

Published 20 March 2018

How do I cite a name like Queen Elizabeth I, John of Gaunt, and Catherine of Aragon?

Use the first name. Some categories of personal names lack a last name–for example, some rulers and members of the nobility and many premodern people, whose name includes a place-name and not a surname (e.g., John of Gaunt). When you list such names in your works-cited-list entry, follow the guidelines in section 2.1.2 of the MLA Handbook: omit any titles . . .

Published 2 February 2018

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