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Do I introduce an author’s full name and the full title of a work in each chapter of a book or dissertation?

It depends on the focus of your work. In a dissertation on a single author or title—say, Gabriel Marcel’s Being and Having: An Existentialist Diary—it would be overkill to introduce the author and full title of the work anew in each chapter. References to the author’s last name and a shortened title are sufficient. But . . .

Published 12 September 2017

How do I cite a numbered footnote?

Cite a numbered footnote or endnote in a parenthetical citation thus: Edward Wallis, the editor, notes that the poet used this technique for the first time in “New Poem” (77n5). When citing multiple notes from a single page, this format is suggested: The editors of the facsimile edition call the reader’s attention to three instances . . .

Published 14 August 2017

How do I quote stage directions?

There are different traditions for formatting stage directions, even in publications of the same play. When quoting stage directions, your aim should be consistency. It is most common to find stage directions in italics, and you should replicate them: After Levan states that Homais “faints,” the stage directions detail what happens next: “She sinks down . . .

Published 7 August 2017

How do I cite a source that has no author?

When a work is published without an author’s name, begin the works-cited-list entry with the title of the work. Do not use “Anonymous” in place of an author’s name: “English Language Arts Standards.” Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2017, www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/. “An Homily against Disobedience and Wylful Rebellion.” 1570. Divine Right and Democracy: An Anthology of . . .

Published 9 August 2017

How do I cite descriptive copy or a quotation from a book cover in the text and in the works-cited list?

If you are citing descriptive copy or a quotation printed on the cover of a book, it’s preferable to incorporate the necessary details (chiefly, the author of the copy or quotation you are citing, if known, and the source where the copy or quotation appears) into the body of your text and then create a . . .

Published 28 July 2017

How do I cite a quotation that I’ve altered?

In almost all cases you should transcribe a quotation exactly as it appears in the source. However, you may occasionally want to italicize words in a quotation to call special attention to them. If you add italics for emphasis, indicate that you’ve altered the quotation by using the phrase emphasis added (or my emphasis), like . . .

Published 1 March 2017

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