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How do I cite measures from a musical score?

Measure numbers can point readers to the pertinent section of a source more precisely than page numbers: Mozart supplies a gently rocking melody for Figaro and Susanna’s private reconciliation (measures 275-93). Work Cited Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Marriage of Figaro (Le Nozze di Figaro). Dover Publications, 1979. If you cite measures repeatedly in your work, . . .

Published 10 January 2019

How do I abbreviate the name of a corporate author in my in-text citation?

Use either the first few words of the name or, if not cumbersome, the entity’s initials. For example, Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and Its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline might be shortened to Institute or Institute of Medicine, but National Institutes of . . .

Published 30 November 2018

If I repeatedly use a quotation from the same source, do I need to use quotation marks each time?

You should generally use quotation marks if you repeat a quotation from the same source, but you may omit quotation marks when referring back to a concept or method (e.g., distant reading) mentioned in the source: Moretti takes issue with this tendency to regard literature at any level as “a world” complete and classifiable rather than . . .

Published 2 November 2018

How do I eliminate back-to-back parentheses in a sentence?

To eliminate back-to-back parentheses in a sentence, you should generally reword:   Original:  The General Franco Institute published the most important Spanish colonial work on Andalusi music, Patrocinio García Barriuso’s La música hispano-musulmana en Marruecos (“Hispano-Muslim Music in Morocco”) (1941). Revised: In 1941, the General Franco Institute published the most important Spanish colonial work on Andalusi music, . . .

Published 31 October 2018

If more than one source for a paraphrased idea is cited in a parenthetical citation, in what order do I list the sources?

If you paraphrase a single idea from more than one source and the sources are equally important, the order in which you list them is up to you. To be neutral, you might list them alphabetically:  While reading may be the core of literacy, literacy can be complete only when reading is accompanied by writing (Baron 194; . . .

Published 23 October 2018

How do I quote bulleted or numbered points from a source?

If you need to quote from a bulleted or numbered list, you can reproduce the list in your essay, as in the example below: Parvini organizes the material into four groups: Early modern Christian beliefs inherited from the medieval period, indeed the very period that Shakespeare is writing about in the history plays The structure . . .

Published 1 October 2018

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