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How do I cite a magazine cover in my works-cited list and in my essay?

To cite the cover of a magazine, you can generally create a works-cited-list entry for the issue of the magazine and then key your in-text reference to the first element of the entry: 

The most recent issue of The Nation features on its cover an image of a donkey with the top of the Capitol building on its back.
Work Cited
The Nation. 17-24 Dec. 2018, www.thenation.com/issue/december-17-24-2018-issue/.

If you discuss a cover image in detail and wish to credit the artist, you could provide the artist’s full name at first mention in your prose or the artist’s last name in parentheses and list the entry under the artist’s name. 

Published 19 April 2019

How do I cite a handbook or adventure module for a tabletop role-playing game such as Dungeons and Dragons?

If you are citing a published handbook or adventure module for a tabletop role-playing game such as Dungeons and Dragons, treat the work as you would any other book in MLA style and follow the MLA format template. Some published handbooks or adventures may be produced by many people playing various roles, so if your discussion of such a work does not focus on an individual’s contribution to the volume, begin the entry with the title of the work.

Player’s Handbook. Wizards of the Coast, 2014.
Storm King’s Thunder. Wizards of the Coast,

Published 5 April 2019

My paper is included in conference proceedings. If I refer to other papers included in the proceedings, do I need to create works-cited-list entries?

No. You do not need to document the other papers, but you should make clear in your prose that the other papers are included in the proceedings (e.g., “In an essay on Toni Morrison in these proceedings, Barbara Anderson writes . . .”). You may provide the page number or numbers of the passages you are citing if the publisher permits, but such information is not required.

Published 4 March 2019

If I am citing a manuscript that displays page numbers on some pages but not on others, how do I handle my in-text citations?

As noted in the MLA Handbook, “When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation. Do not count unnumbered paragraphs or other parts” (56).
The same principle should generally be applied when you cite sources that inconsistently supply page numbers: do not count pages to supply missing information. So if a work you are citing displays page numbers in some sections but not others, cite page numbers when they appear, and omit them when they do not. Then at first mention of the work in your paper,

Published 28 February 2019

How do I create an in-text citation for a note or marginalia by an editor or translator in a work listed under the author’s name?

If you are citing an editor’s or translator’s note for a work listed under the author’s name, create a works-cited-list entry for the work as a whole and key your in-text citation to the first element of the entry—that is, the author’s name. In your prose, make clear that you are referring to a comment by the editor or translator:

Zola’s translator explains that the name of the town Le Voreux “suggests the ‘voracious’ nature of the mine” (533n2).
Work Cited
Zola, Émile. Germinal. Translated by Roger Pearson, Penguin Books, 2004.

If the notes are not numbered (e.g., if they are set as footnotes indicated by symbols or appear in a headnote or marginalia),

Published 21 February 2019

How do I cite measures from a musical score?

Measure numbers can point readers to the pertinent section of a source more precisely than page numbers:

Mozart supplies a gently rocking melody for Figaro and Susanna’s private reconciliation (measures 275-93).
Work Cited
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Marriage of Figaro (Le Nozze di Figaro). Dover Publications, 1979.

If you cite measures repeatedly in your work, identify them using the abbreviation “mm” listed in Merriam-Webster:

Mozart supplies a gently rocking melody for Figaro and Susanna’s private reconciliation (mm. 275-93) but sets the Count’s public repentance and his wife’s sublime forgiveness more grandly (mm. 420-30). 

 

Published 10 January 2019

How do I abbreviate the name of a corporate author in my in-text citation?

Use either the first few words of the name or, if not cumbersome, the entity’s initials. For example, Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and Its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline might be shortened to Institute or Institute of Medicine, but National Institutes of Health might be shortened to NIH.
Whichever form you choose, use it consistently throughout your work.
 
 
 

Published 30 November 2018

If I repeatedly use a quotation from the same source, do I need to use quotation marks each time?

You should generally use quotation marks if you repeat a quotation from the same source, but you may omit quotation marks when referring back to a concept or method (e.g., distant reading) mentioned in the source:

Moretti takes issue with this tendency to regard literature at any level as “a world” complete and classifiable rather than one in production and changing unevenly. Ironically, coming from someone obviously given to spatial diagrams of literary phenomena, “distant reading” adheres to the principle that “spatial proximity never turns into functional interaction” (14). Moretti won’t let us construe the distance implied by distant reading in opposition to the closeness and polysemy of literary language.

Published 2 November 2018

How do I eliminate back-to-back parentheses in a sentence?

To eliminate back-to-back parentheses in a sentence, you should generally reword:  

Original: 
The General Franco Institute published the most important Spanish colonial work on Andalusi music, Patrocinio García Barriuso’s La música hispano-musulmana en Marruecos (“Hispano-Muslim Music in Morocco”) (1941).
Revised:
In 1941, the General Franco Institute published the most important Spanish colonial work on Andalusi music, Patrocinio García Barriuso’s La música hispano-musulmana en Marruecos (“Hispano-Muslim Music in Morocco”).

In some cases, you can combine information in one set of parentheses and separate the items with a semicolon:

Original:
In N. Scott Momaday’s House Made of Dawn,

Published 31 October 2018

If more than one source for a paraphrased idea is cited in a parenthetical citation, in what order do I list the sources?

If you paraphrase a single idea from more than one source and the sources are equally important, the order in which you list them is up to you. To be neutral, you might list them alphabetically: 

While reading may be the core of literacy, literacy can be complete only when reading is accompanied by writing (Baron 194; Jacobs 55).

But if some sources are more relevant to the idea than others, you might list the sources in order of relevance:

Scholars have long advanced the idea that political and economic forces undergird how narratives are shaped (Jameson; Poovey; Cohen). 

 

 
 

Published 23 October 2018

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