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Can I cross-reference episodes from a television series?

Television series are divided into episodes and often air for many seasons. During the run of a series, performers, directors, and even the entity making the show publicly available (the “publisher”) can change, and thus publication information typically varies by episode. Thus, since the goal of cross-referencing entries in the works-cited list is economy and . . .

Published 16 January 2018

Are there instances when you might not place a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence?

MLA style aims to make in-text citations as unobtrusive as possible, so we normally recommend placing them at the end of a sentence, but sometimes for clarity you may need to insert a citation earlier–for instance, when the number of quotations in your sentence exceeds the number of page numbers: Rather than a suspicious reader’s “digging down” . . .

Published 8 January 2018

Where do I place an exclamation point or a question mark in relation to a parenthetical reference for a paraphrase?

You should place an exclamation point or a question mark after the parenthetical reference for a paraphrase: Why did Karl Marx say that a commodity is a strange object (47)? Work Cited Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels, vol. 1, Progress Publishers, 1887, . . .

Published 19 December 2017

If I am referring to two sources that make the same point, how do I make my citations clear?

If you directly cite two sources that make the same point, you must make clear to your reader the source of each quotation.  Johnson argues that “mint chip ice cream is better than chocolate ice cream” (10). Smith agrees: “Chocolate ice cream is not as good as mint chip ice cream” (30). It may be best, however, to paraphrase: Scholars agree . . .

Published 14 December 2017

How do I cite an image in a periodical?

When you are citing an image reproduced in a periodical, it is usually sufficient to refer to it in your text and create a works-cited-list entry for the essay in which the image appears. In the example below, the image, printed in an essay from PMLA, is described in prose, and the figure number and . . .

Published 13 December 2017

How do I create an in-text citation for a film?

The in-text citation for a film should key to a works-cited-list entry. If you list a film under its title, you must refer to the title in your writing or cite it parenthetically: Point of No Return, a remake of Nikita, deviates from the original French movie in several ways. Luc Besson (Nikita) and John Badham (Point) approach the figure . . .

Published 20 February 2018

In an in-text citation, how do I shorten a title that appears in quotation marks when it starts with a title in quotation marks?

If you need to shorten a title within quotation marks that begins with a title in quotation marks, use the title within the title as the short form and retain the single quotation marks within double quotation marks: Karen Ford argues that Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” is “replete with contradictions” (“‘Yellow Wallpaper’” 311). . . .

Published 22 February 2018

In-text citations in MLA style involve authors, titles, and page numbers. Can I also include the date of a work?

In MLA style, you must key works you discuss to the works-cited list. You may do so by mentioning the author in the text or in a parenthetical citation. If you refer to more than one work by the author or a work is anonymously written, your in-text references must specify the title. You are free to provide additional information, . . .

Published 5 December 2017

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