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If I am referring to two sources that make the same point, how do I make my citations clear?

If you directly cite two sources that make the same point, you must make clear to your reader the source of each quotation.  Johnson argues that “mint chip ice cream is better than chocolate ice cream” (10). Smith agrees: “Chocolate ice cream is not as good as mint chip ice cream” (30). It may be best, however, to paraphrase: Scholars agree . . .

Published 14 December 2017

How do I cite an image in a periodical?

When you are citing an image reproduced in a periodical, it is usually sufficient to refer to it in your text and create a works-cited-list entry for the essay in which the image appears. In the example below, the image, printed in an essay from PMLA, is described in prose, and the figure number and . . .

Published 13 December 2017

How do I create an in-text citation for a film?

The in-text citation for a film should key to a works-cited-list entry. If you list a film under its title, you must refer to the title in your writing or cite it parenthetically: Point of No Return, a remake of Nikita, deviates from the original French movie in several ways. Luc Besson (Nikita) and John Badham (Point) approach the figure . . .

Published 20 February 2018

In an in-text citation, how do I shorten a title that appears in quotation marks when it starts with a title in quotation marks?

If you need to shorten a title within quotation marks that begins with a title in quotation marks, use the title within the title as the short form and retain the single quotation marks within double quotation marks: Karen Ford argues that Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” is “replete with contradictions” (“‘Yellow Wallpaper’” 311). . . .

Published 22 February 2018

In-text citations in MLA style involve authors, titles, and page numbers. Can I also include the date of a work?

In MLA style, you must key works you discuss to the works-cited list. You may do so by mentioning the author in the text or in a parenthetical citation. If you refer to more than one work by the author or a work is anonymously written, your in-text references must specify the title. You are free to provide additional information, . . .

Published 5 December 2017

If a source contains more than one work with an introduction to each labeled “Introduction,” how should I refer to the introductions in my writing and in my works-cited list?

If you need to differentiate among several introductions in a source because each is labeled “Introduction,” you can either make clear in your writing which introduction you are referring to or use a description in a parenthetical citation: In his introduction to Antigone, Bernard Knox remarks that to Victorian readers, “the subject matter of the play seemed academic” (35). . . .

Published 30 November 2017

If I refer to two people with the same last name in my writing, should I repeat their full names each time I mention them?

If you refer to two people with the same last name, repeat their full names for subsequent mentions whenever your reader might not be certain which person you are discussing. For example, in the following excerpt, from an essay by Melissa Girard that mentions several people with the last name Johnson, the author gives the full name . . .

Published 5 March 2018

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