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What should I include in parentheses if the author’s name is provided in a signal phrase and the source has no page numbers or other kind of part number?

As the MLA Handbook notes, “When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation” (56). The following example illustrates this principle:  “As we read we . . . construct the terrain of a book” (Hollmichel), something that is more difficult when the text . . .

Published 29 January 2018

How do I cite a meme?

Here we refer to meme in its sense as “an amusing or interesting item (such as a captioned picture or video) or genre of items that is spread widely online especially through social media” (“Meme”). Citing Particular Examples of Memes You would cite a meme in MLA style just as you would any other work: . . .

Published 13 December 2017

How do I cite quotations that are on nonconsecutive pages?

Nonconsecutive page numbers are presented in the same order as the quotations to which they refer: As Ann Smith notes, some scholars contend that “the sky is green,” but others claim that “the sky is red” (80, 120). As Ann Smith notes, some scholars contend that  “the sky is red,” but others claim that “the sky . . .

Published 17 January 2018

Can I cross-reference episodes from a television series?

Television series are divided into episodes and often air for many seasons. During the run of a series, performers, directors, and even the entity making the show publicly available (the “publisher”) can change, and thus publication information typically varies by episode. Thus, since the goal of cross-referencing entries in the works-cited list is economy and . . .

Published 16 January 2018

Are there instances when you might not place a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence?

MLA style aims to make in-text citations as unobtrusive as possible, so we normally recommend placing them at the end of a sentence, but sometimes for clarity you may need to insert a citation earlier–for instance, when the number of quotations in your sentence exceeds the number of page numbers: Rather than a suspicious reader’s “digging down” . . .

Published 8 January 2018

Where do I place an exclamation point or a question mark in relation to a parenthetical reference for a paraphrase?

You should place an exclamation point or a question mark after the parenthetical reference for a paraphrase: Why did Karl Marx say that a commodity is a strange object (47)? Work Cited Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels, vol. 1, Progress Publishers, 1887, www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/ . . .

Published 19 December 2017

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