You are viewing all posts tagged

My paper is included in conference proceedings. If I refer to other papers included in the proceedings, do I need to create works-cited-list entries?

No. You do not need to document the other papers, but you should make clear in your prose that the other papers are included in the proceedings (e.g., “In an essay on Toni Morrison in these proceedings, Barbara Anderson writes . . .”). You may provide the page number or numbers of the passages you are citing if the publisher permits, but such information is not required.

Published 4 March 2019

If I am citing a manuscript that displays page numbers on some pages but not on others, how do I handle my in-text citations?

As noted in the MLA Handbook, “When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation. Do not count unnumbered paragraphs or other parts” (56).
The same principle should generally be applied when you cite sources that inconsistently supply page numbers: do not count pages to supply missing information. So if a work you are citing displays page numbers in some sections but not others, cite page numbers when they appear, and omit them when they do not. Then at first mention of the work in your paper,

Published 28 February 2019

If I use Google Translate to help me understand sources, do I need to create a works-cited-list entry for it?

No, but if you are relying on Google Translate, we recommend that you alert your instructor as early as possible. If you are unable to talk with your instructor, indicate in an endnote in your paper that you have used Google’s translation tool.
Keep in mind, though, that Google Translate does not always translate accurately. As the Princeton University professor Simon Gikandi notes, “When I ask Google to translate ‘Call an ambulance’ into Swahili, it suggests ‘beat up the vehicle that carries sick people’” (qtd. in Jaschik).
Work Cited
Jaschik, Scott. “Computer Science as (Foreign Language) Admissions Requirement.” 

Published 26 February 2019

How do I create an in-text citation for a note or marginalia by an editor or translator in a work listed under the author’s name?

If you are citing an editor’s or translator’s note for a work listed under the author’s name, create a works-cited-list entry for the work as a whole and key your in-text citation to the first element of the entry—that is, the author’s name. In your prose, make clear that you are referring to a comment by the editor or translator:

Zola’s translator explains that the name of the town Le Voreux “suggests the ‘voracious’ nature of the mine” (533n2).
Work Cited
Zola, Émile. Germinal. Translated by Roger Pearson, Penguin Books, 2004.

If the notes are not numbered (e.g., if they are set as footnotes indicated by symbols or appear in a headnote or marginalia),

Published 21 February 2019

If I paraphrase information from a source and then refer to that information again later in my paper, do I need to credit the source again?

If you paraphrase information from a source and cite that source appropriately, you do not need to cite subsequent references to that information. For example, if you are writing an essay about outer space, and you cite an article saying that there are about twenty thousand man-made objects orbiting the Earth (Witze), you do not need to cite the same source if you reintroduce that figure.
Work Cited
Witze, Alexandra. “The Quest to Conquer Earth’s Space Junk Problem.” Scientific American, 8 Sept. 2018, www.scientificamerican.com/
article/ the-quest-to-conquer-earths-space-junk-problem/.

Published 12 February 2019

How do I cite an unpublished student paper?

A works-cited-list entry for an unpublished student paper should include the author, title of the paper (in quotation marks), and date. The name of the course, the institution for which the paper was prepared, and the type of work can be provided as optional information at the end of the entry:

Leland, Dina. “Designing Web Sites with Preschool Learners in Mind: Two Approaches Compared.” 4 Sept. 2017. User Experience 101, Dunham College, student paper.

In its publications, it is MLA policy to obtain permission from students before quoting from work they produced for class. Note that this does not extend to MA or PhD theses,

Published 8 February 2019

How do I cite an artificial intelligence?

How you cite a program that uses artificial intelligence depends on the format in which you interact with it, as well as the goal of your citation. If you want to cite the source code of the program, you can refer to The MLA Style Center post about citing source code. However, if you want to cite the output of a program that uses artificial intelligence, like a chatbot, you should cite the platform on which you interacted with the program and the author of the program if you find one listed. For example, if you are describing your chat with a version of Eliza,

Published 6 February 2019

Is it permissible to include in a works-cited-list entry a permalink I created for a source?

Yes. The MLA Handbook notes that writers should aim to “provide their audiences with useful information about their sources” (3). If you have created a permalink for a Web page using a trusted tool, such as Perma.cc, providing the link will be useful since it will allow your reader to access the page even if the original URL changes. You should, however, also provide the URL, since that is where you located the source. List both the URL and the permalink in the “Location” slot, separated by a comma:

Gibson, Angela. “URLs: Some Practical Advice.” The MLA Style Center

Published 1 February 2019

How do I cite the Homeric hymns?

The Homeric hymns refer to poems that were once attributed, mistakenly, to the ancient Greek poet Homer. They are Homeric only in the sense that they were written in the same meter as Homer’s poems. When citing the Homeric hymns, treat them as a coherent collection of anonymous works. According to the MLA Handbook, titles of works that are contained in a larger work are enclosed in quotation marks (68).
In an essay, you might write the following:

One of the Homeric hymns to Demeter gives the goddess the epithet “lady of the golden sword and glorious fruits”

Published 30 January 2019

Get MLA Style News from The Source

Be the first to read new posts and updates about MLA style.

The Source Sign-up - Style Center Footer

Skip to toolbar