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How do I cite a political cartoon?

As with any image, how you cite a political cartoon depends on where you found it. Say, for example, you found it republished on a museum Web site. Using the MLA format template, include the artist’s name, the title of the work (or a description of the work if no title is given), the name of the publisher, and the work’s publication date. Then provide the name of the Web site and its publication details in a second container, as shown in the example below:

Gillray, James. The Plumb-Pudding in Danger; or, State Epicures Taking un Petit Souper.

Published 14 August 2019

How do I cite a print magazine essay republished on a Web site?

If you are citing a print magazine essay republished on a Web site, follow the MLA format template and list the Web site as the container. Information about the original publication is optional and so may be provided in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry. You could also use the optional-element slot in the middle of the entry to provide the year of original publication. Or you could cite the Web site by itself without providing any information about the original. The examples below show three ways of citing a print essay republished on a Web site:

Kerouac, . . .

Published 8 August 2019

If you are citing coauthors who share a last name (e.g., husband and wife or brother and sister), should you list the last name twice?

Yes. You should treat each author as an individual with a unique identity. Thus, if you are citing a work by authors who share a last name, provide the full name of each author in the entry in the works-cited list. The following sentence and the works-cited-list entry below are examples:

Beginning with the seventh volume of The Story of Civilization, Will Durant and Ariel Durant were listed as coauthors (Age of Reason).
Work Cited
Durant, Will, and Ariel Durant. The Age of Reason Begins: A History of European Civilization in the Period of Shakespeare, . . .

Published 7 August 2019

How do I cite the keynote from a Twitter conference?

Since a Twitter conference keynote will likely span several tweets, cite it the way you would cite a Twitter thread. Follow the MLA format template. List the author of the keynote, the text of the first tweet in the thread (shortened if necessary), Twitter as the title of the container, the date, and the URL:

@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam). “Thank you, @annetiquate & @caitduffy49 for the opportunity to speak today and to all of you who are participating. . . .” Twitter, 18 July 2019,

You could also use a description in place of the tweet text:

@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam).

Published 19 July 2019

How should mathematical theories be cited in my prose and in my works-cited list?

It depends on whether the theory can be considered common knowledge.
When you discuss a complex mathematical theory, you should cite a source that explains the theory. As always, to create your works-cited-list entry for the source, follow the MLA format template and key your in-text citation to the first element of the entry. In the following example, the authors of the source, Earl D. Rainville and Phillip E. Bedient, are named in the prose, and this information directs your reader to their work in the works-cited list:

Earl D. Rainville and Phillip E. Bedient explain a “theorem concerning the existence and uniqueness of solutions” . . .

Published 16 July 2019

Should I credit the reviewers of an online article?

It is not necessary to credit the reviewers of an online article, since they may not have contributed any content, but if you wish to do so, list them in the “Other contributors” slot.  If they did not play a role in reviewing the entire Web site, list their names in the middle optional-element slot after the title preceded by the label “reviewed by.” If there are more than two reviewers, list the first reviewer’s name followed by et al. If the date reviewed is provided, list it after the names of the reviewers:

“Vaccine Safety: Immune System and Health.” Reviewed by Paul A.

Published 15 July 2019

When citing a work on a Web site, should I use the original publication date or the last-updated date?

As the MLA Handbook notes, “When a source carries more than one date, cite the date that is most meaningful or most relevant to your use of the source” (42). Thus, if you are citing a work on the Web that lists both an original publication date and a last-updated date, use the last-updated date or, if provided instead, the last-reviewed date. Providing the last-updated or last-reviewed date lets your reader know that the information you are citing is current.
For an example of a works-cited-list entry listing a last-reviewed date, see our post on crediting the reviewers of an online article.

Published 12 July 2019

Should a Norton Critical Edition be listed as a version or as a series in a works-cited-list entry?

As the following example from the MLA Handbook demonstrates, a Norton Critical Edition should be listed in the “Version” slot (107): 

Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Edited by Deidre Shauna Lynch, Norton Critical Edition, 3rd ed., W. W. Norton, 2009.

A critical edition is a particular version of a work and that knowledge may be useful to your reader.
Work Cited
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Published 5 July 2019

How do I cite in my prose an untitled poem known by its number in a collection?

If you are citing an untitled poem known only by its number, a generic description of the poem can be substituted for the title in the works-cited list and in the in-text citation, if necessary. For instance, in an essay about Shakespeare’s sonnets, you might write the following:

Shakespeare’s sonnet 130 is an anti-Petrarchan poem, negating the conventions of love poetry Petrarch had made popular. It begins with an unflattering comparison: “My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun” (line 1).

Work Cited
Shakespeare, William. Sonnet 130. The Complete Sonnets and Poems, by Shakespeare, edited by Colin Burrow, . . .

Published 2 July 2019

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