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What should I include in parentheses if the author’s name is provided in a signal phrase and the source, such as an e-book or Web site, has no page numbers?

As the MLA Handbook notes, “When a source has no page numbers or any other kind of part number, no number should be given in a parenthetical citation” (56). The following example illustrates this principle:  “As we read we . . . construct the terrain of a book” (Hollmichel), something that is more difficult when the text . . .

Published 29 January 2018

How do I cite a meme?

Here we refer to meme in its sense as “an amusing or interesting item (such as a captioned picture or video) or genre of items that is spread widely online especially through social media” (“Meme”). Citing Particular Examples of Memes You would cite a meme in MLA style just as you would any other work: . . .

Published 13 December 2017

Can a building be cited as a source?

Although it is not conventional to document a building as if it were a work, if you are discussing many buildings in detail–for example, analyzing their architectural details, comparing them to one another–and wish to list full information about them in your works-cited list, follow the MLA template of core elements. Generally begin your entry with the architect . . .

Published 13 February 2018

If I cite from a book that has an introduction, but I do not cite the introduction, should I include the introduction’s author in my works-cited-list entry?

Authors of introductions, prefaces, afterwords, and the like—collectively called front and back matter—are not usually essential to identifying a work and can be omitted from works-cited-list entries. If you do include the author of an introduction, place the author’s name in the “Other contributors” slot: Gogol, Nikolai. Dead Souls: A Novel. Translated by Richard Pevear . . .

Published 30 January 2018

How do I cite information about a movie from a Web site like IMDB?

Basic publication facts about a movie (e.g., the title, director, year of release) should be taken from the version of the movie you watch, when possible. Other movie information published on a Web site will likely fall into two categories: common knowledge and information that requires documentation—that is, information, analysis, and wording specific to the . . .

Published 29 January 2018

If I am referring to two sources that make the same point, how do I make my citations clear?

If you directly cite two sources that make the same point, you must make clear to your reader the source of each quotation.  Johnson argues that “mint chip ice cream is better than chocolate ice cream” (10). Smith agrees: “Chocolate ice cream is not as good as mint chip ice cream” (30). It may be best, however, to paraphrase: Scholars agree . . .

Published 14 December 2017

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