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How do I cite a Google Earth location?

To cite a Google Earth location, follow the MLA format template. Provide a description in place of a title. Then list Google Earth as the title of the container and the URL as the location. In the following example, the URL has been shortened, in accordance with our URL guidelines.

Map showing location of Leaning Tower of Pisa. Google Earth, earth.google.com/web/.

Read more about citing maps.

Published 12 March 2019

My paper is included in conference proceedings. If I refer to other papers included in the proceedings, do I need to create works-cited-list entries?

No. You do not need to document the other papers, but you should make clear in your prose that the other papers are included in the proceedings (e.g., “In an essay on Toni Morrison in these proceedings, Barbara Anderson writes . . .”). You may provide the page number or numbers of the passages you are citing if the publisher permits, but such information is not required.

Published 4 March 2019

How do I cite an unpublished student paper?

A works-cited-list entry for an unpublished student paper should include the author, title of the paper (in quotation marks), and date. The name of the course, the institution for which the paper was prepared, and the type of work can be provided as optional information at the end of the entry:

Leland, Dina. “Designing Web Sites with Preschool Learners in Mind: Two Approaches Compared.” 4 Sept. 2017. User Experience 101, Dunham College, student paper.

In its publications, it is MLA policy to obtain permission from students before quoting from work they produced for class. Note that this does not extend to MA or PhD theses,

Published 8 February 2019

How do I cite an artificial intelligence?

How you cite a program that uses artificial intelligence depends on the format in which you interact with it, as well as the goal of your citation. If you want to cite the source code of the program, you can refer to The MLA Style Center post about citing source code. However, if you want to cite the output of a program that uses artificial intelligence, like a chatbot, you should cite the platform on which you interacted with the program and the author of the program if you find one listed. For example, if you are describing your chat with a version of Eliza,

Published 6 February 2019

Is it permissible to include in a works-cited-list entry a permalink I created for a source?

Yes. The MLA Handbook notes that writers should aim to “provide their audiences with useful information about their sources” (3). If you have created a permalink for a Web page using a trusted tool, such as Perma.cc, providing the link will be useful since it will allow your reader to access the page even if the original URL changes. You should, however, also provide the URL, since that is where you located the source. List both the URL and the permalink in the “Location” slot, separated by a comma:

Gibson, Angela. “URLs: Some Practical Advice.” The MLA Style Center

Published 1 February 2019

How do I cite the Homeric hymns?

The Homeric hymns refer to poems that were once attributed, mistakenly, to the ancient Greek poet Homer. They are Homeric only in the sense that they were written in the same meter as Homer’s poems. When citing the Homeric hymns, treat them as a coherent collection of anonymous works. According to the MLA Handbook, titles of works that are contained in a larger work are enclosed in quotation marks (68).
In an essay, you might write the following:

One of the Homeric hymns to Demeter gives the goddess the epithet “lady of the golden sword and glorious fruits”

Published 30 January 2019

How do I cite a GIF?

How you cite a GIF depends on where it appears. If the GIF is part of a larger work, cite the work and refer to the GIF in your prose. As always, key your in-text citation to the first element of the works-cited-list entry:

In a BuzzFeed post on aging, a pair of GIFs demonstrates how much easier it is to lose weight in one’s early twenties than in one’s late twenties (Misener). 
Work Cited
Misener, Jessica. “Life in Your Early Twenties vs. Your Late Twenties.” BuzzFeed, 8 Apr. 2013, www.buzzfeed.com/jessicamisener/
life-in-your-early-twenties-vs-your-late-twenties.

If the GIF is included as an illustration in your essay,

Published 24 January 2019

Do I need to indicate in my works-cited-list entry that I conducted an interview orally?

No, but if it’s important for your reader to know, you can write “Oral interview” as a description in the “Title of source” slot in the same way that you would write “E-mail interview” if you wished to indicate that you conducted an interview by e-mail:
Smith, Helen. Oral interview. By Rachel Green. 6 June 2017.
Read more about citing an interview conducted by e-mail.
 

Published 21 January 2019

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