How do I cite an interview conducted by e-mail?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook.

Follow the MLA format template. Treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then provide a description that includes the format (“E-mail interview”) in the “Title of source” slot. You may list the interviewer’s name as an “Other contributor” after the description. Then list the date on which the interview was conducted.

Smith, Helen. E-mail interview. Conducted by Rachel Green, 6 June 2017.

If the interview did not take place on a single day, style the dates as shown in our post on citing an interview that occurred on more than one day.

Note: We have updated our guidelines on citing interviews. If the interview is not contained in another work, as here, the interviewer’s name can be listed in the “Other contributors” slot and followed by a comma. For an interview contained in another work, see our post on documenting an interview in MLA style.