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Do I need to indicate in my works-cited-list entry that I conducted an interview orally?

No, but if it’s important for your reader to know, you can write “Oral interview” as a description in the “Title of source” slot in the same way that you would write “E-mail interview” if you wished to indicate that you conducted an interview by e-mail:
Smith, Helen. Oral interview. By Rachel Green. 6 June 2017.
Read more about citing an interview conducted by e-mail.
  . . .

Published 21 January 2019

How do I cite an interview conducted by e-mail?

Follow the MLA format template. Treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then provide a description that includes the format (“E-mail interview”) in the “Title of source” slot. You may list the interviewer’s name as an “Other contributor” after the description. Then list the date on which the interview was conducted.

Smith, Helen. E-mail interview. Conducted by Rachel Green, 6 June 2017.

If the interview did not take place on a single day, style the dates as shown in our post on citing an interview that occurred on more than one day.
Note: We have updated our guidelines on citing interviews.

Published 17 December 2018

If more than one person is interviewed in the same interview, do I create separate entries for each person or treat them as coauthors in a single entry?

One interview is one work, no matter how many people are being interviewed or how many people are conducting the interview, so you should create only one entry. An example:
Washington, Denzel, and Michael B. Jordan. “Passing the Torch: Denzel Washington and Michael B. Jordan.” Interview conducted by Philip Galanes. The New York Times, 19 Apr. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/
04/19/arts/television/denzel-washington-michael-b-jordan-black
-panther-iceman-cometh.html.

Published 17 October 2018

How do I cite a personal interview when the interviewee wishes to remain anonymous?

If a person you are interviewing wishes to remain anonymous, do not create a works-cited-list entry for the interview. Instead, indicate in an endnote that the source is a personal interview and provide any relevant details such as the method of communication (e.g., phone, e-mail, text message, in-person meeting) and the date on which the interview took place.

Published 5 April 2018

How do I cite an interview when the interviewee has been attributed in my prose?

In an interview, the person being interviewed is generally considered the author; thus the works-cited-list entry for the interview will be listed under that person’s name. If you use the name of the person being interviewed in your prose, you have provided your reader with the necessary information to find the entry:

Orhan Pamuk has said that the war in Iraq “made life for democrats in this part of the world harder” (179).
 Work Cited
Pamuk, Orhan. “Implementing Disform: An Interview with Orhan Pamuk.” Interview conducted by Z. Esra Mirze. PMLA, vol. 123, no. 1, Jan. 2008, pp.

Published 14 February 2018

How do I cite a personal interview that occurred on more than one day?

To cite a personal interview that occurred on more than one day, begin by following the MLA format template. In general, treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then follow the guidelines on pages 28–29 of the MLA Handbook and include the description interview as the “Title of source” element. You may list the interviewer’s name as an “Other contributor” after the description. In the “Publication date” slot, treat the dates of the interview as a range if they are consecutive:

Cohen, Allan. Interview. Conducted by Christine Stevens, 24-25 May 2016.

If the dates are not consecutive, . . .

Published 26 September 2017

How do I document an interview in MLA style?

Create a works-cited-list entry for an interview as you would for any other source: follow the MLA format template. In general, treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then provide the title of the interview:

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. “English Is the Hero.” No Condition Is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13–19.

If the interview is contained in another work, the interviewer’s name may be included in the optional-element slot after the title of the interview and followed by a period: 

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. “English Is the Hero.” Interview conducted by Diri I.

Published 7 June 2016

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