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How do I cite the keynote from a Twitter conference?

Since a Twitter conference keynote will likely span several tweets, cite it the way you would cite a Twitter thread. Follow the MLA format template. List the author of the keynote, the text of the first tweet in the thread (shortened if necessary), Twitter as the title of the container, the date, and the URL:

@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam). “Thank you, @annetiquate & @caitduffy49 for the opportunity to speak today and to all of you who are participating. . . .” Twitter, 18 July 2019,

You could also use a description in place of the tweet text:

@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam).

Published 19 July 2019

How should mathematical theories be cited in my prose and in my works-cited list?

It depends on whether the theory can be considered common knowledge.
When you discuss a complex mathematical theory, you should cite a source that explains the theory. As always, to create your works-cited-list entry for the source, follow the MLA format template and key your in-text citation to the first element of the entry. In the following example, the authors of the source, Earl D. Rainville and Phillip E. Bedient, are named in the prose, and this information directs your reader to their work in the works-cited list:

Earl D. Rainville and Phillip E. Bedient explain a “theorem concerning the existence and uniqueness of solutions”

Published 16 July 2019

How do you cite a summary of a work in MLA style?

In MLA style, when you cite a summary of a work, you should generally mention the name of the work you are summarizing and its author in your prose and include the work in your works-cited list. The author’s name in your prose will direct the reader to the works-cited-list entry. Page numbers are not normally needed, since you are discussing the work as a whole rather than quoting or paraphrasing a passage from it:

In Obedience to Authority, Stanley Milgram argues that people who are normally kind to others will act otherwise when they are under the influence of a person in a position of power.

Published 18 June 2019

If I have a work by one author and a work by that author and coauthors in my works-cited-list, how do I order my entries?

A work by one author should be listed before a work by that author and a coauthor.

Rappaport, Joanne. The Disappearing Mestizo: Configuring Difference in the Colonial Kingdom of Granada. Duke UP, 2014.
Rappaport, Joanne, and Tom Cummins. Beyond the Lettered City: Indigenous Literacies in the Andes. Duke UP, 2012.

If there is more than one coauthored work by that author in the list of works cited, list the entries alphabetically by the last name of the coauthor.

Ender, Evelyne, and Serafina Lawrence. “Inside a Red Cover: Proust and the Art of the Book.” Proust and the Arts,

Published 6 June 2019

Should I cite each entry from an encyclopedia separately?

You should provide citations for each encyclopedia entry that you use in your essay. A good example is Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia. You would cite each article from Wikipedia separately, even though they come from the same source. A sentence in your essay might read as follows:

According to Wikipedia, an encyclopedia “is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either all branches or from a particular field or discipline” (“Encyclopedia”).

Work Cited
“Encyclopedia.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 3 Dec. 2018,

Published 4 June 2019

How do I cite a serialized article?

Create a separate works-cited-list entry for each part of a serialized article or for each article published in a series, following the MLA format template. You may include the name of the series, if known, at the end of entries for articles published in a series.
An article published in two parts:

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. “Epistemology of the Closet.” Raritan, vol. 7, no. 4, Spring 1988, pp. 36–69.
—.“Epistemology of the Closet (II).” Raritan, vol. 8, no. 1, Summer 1988, pp. 102–30.

An article published as part of a series:

Glatter, Hayley, et al. “When Homework Is Useless.” The Atlantic,

Published 31 May 2019

How should material from a course pack be cited?

Since course packs may be cited more than one way, students should ask their instructors what to do, and instructors should indicate their preferred citation method. Below are recommendations for instructors and recommendations for students who are unable to get their instructors’ guidance.
Recommendations for Instructors
When assigning material from a course pack, you should decide whether students should cite the course pack or the original source of the work. Either way, the work should be cited according to the MLA format template. 
Say, for example, that an instructor named Anne Smith has asked her students to treat her course pack as the source for Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery.”

Published 30 May 2019

How do I cite the question-and-answer portion of a conference session?

Use your discussion of the event to refer to the question-and-answer portion:

At the ZEE Jaipur Literature Festival in January 2018, I had the opportunity to ask Tom Stoppard a question about his play The Real Thing during the question-and-answer portion of his panel discussion with Sanjna Kapoor (Kapoor and Stoppard).

To create a works-cited-list entry for the event, give the session participants in the “Author” slot, the title or description of the session in the “Title of source” slot, the conference name as the title of the container, and the date and location of the session:

Kapoor, Sanjna,

Published 23 May 2019

How do I cite a conversation in a chat tool?

If you generally discuss a conversation in a chat tool, you can refer to the conversation in your prose or in an endnote without creating a works-cited-list entry. However, if you quote directly from a single message or paraphrase its contents, create a works-cited-list entry for the message and follow the MLA format template.
To cite a message sent to one person, begin your entry by listing the sender of the message as the author. Provide a description in place of a title, and include the recipient’s name in the description. Provide the name of the chat tool in the “Title of container”

Published 21 May 2019

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