To cite an online lesson, follow the MLA template of core elements. List the name of the instructor in the “Author” slot, the title of the lesson or a description of it, the course title, the sponsor of the course, the start and end dates of the course, and a URL:
Venard, Lourdes. Lesson on nominalizations, wordy language, and passive language. Copyediting: Intermediate, Editorial Freelancers Association, 5 June-17 July 2018, www.the-efa.org/product/ copyediting-intermediate-session-2-online-jun-5-jul-17.
If you are citing supplementary material your instructor created for the lesson and uploaded to the lesson page, provide the the title of the supplement or a description of the material in the “Title of source” slot. For clarity, you might indicate the format of the supplement in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry:
Venard, Lourdes. Nominalizations. Copyediting: Intermediate, Editorial Freelancers Association, 5 June-17 July 2018, www.the-efa.org/product/ copyediting-intermediate-session-2-online-jun-5-jul-17. PDF download.
Yes. The MLA’s system for documenting sources is used throughout the world and may be adapted to many contexts. Follow the guidelines in the MLA Handbook for your works-cited-list and in-text citations and make adjustments for British spelling and punctuation.
You should generally use quotation marks if you repeat a quotation from the same source, but you may omit quotation marks when referring back to a concept or method (e.g., distant reading) mentioned in the source:
Moretti takes issue with this tendency to regard literature at any level as “a world” complete and classifiable rather than one in production and changing unevenly. Ironically, coming from someone obviously given to spatial diagrams of literary phenomena, “distant reading” adheres to the principle that “spatial proximity never turns into functional interaction” (14). Moretti won’t let us construe the distance implied by distant reading in opposition to the closeness and polysemy of literary language.
Moretti, Franco. Distant Reading. Verso, 2013.
Note: The example is adapted from Nancy Armstrong and Warren Montag’s “‘The Figure in the Carpet’” (PMLA, vol. 132, no. 3., May 2017, pp. 613–19).
To eliminate back-to-back parentheses in a sentence, you should generally reword:
The General Franco Institute published the most important Spanish colonial work on Andalusi music, Patrocinio García Barriuso’s La música hispano-musulmana en Marruecos (“Hispano-Muslim Music in Morocco”) (1941).
In 1941, the General Franco Institute published the most important Spanish colonial work on Andalusi music, Patrocinio García Barriuso’s La música hispano-musulmana en Marruecos (“Hispano-Muslim Music in Morocco”).
In some cases, you can combine information in one set of parentheses and separate the items with a semicolon:
In N. Scott Momaday’s House Made of Dawn, when Mrs. St. John arrives at the rectory, she tells Father Olguin, “We live in California, my husband and I, Los Angeles. . . . This is beautiful country . . .” (29) (1st ellipsis in original).
In N. Scott Momaday’s House Made of Dawn, when Mrs. St. John arrives at the rectory, she tells Father Olguin, “We live in California, my husband and I, Los Angeles. . . . This is beautiful country . . .” (29; 1st ellipsis in original).
Note: The first example is adapted from Eric Calderwood’s “Franco’s Hajj: Moroccan Pilgrims, Spanish Fascism, and the Unexpected Journeys of Modern Arabic Literature” (PMLA, vol. 132, no. 5, Oct. 2017, pp. 1097–116). The second example is adapted from the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. (Modern Language Association of America, 2016, p. 85).
How you cite e-mail messages depends on how you are using them in your work.
If you refer generally to a series of e-mail exchanges that you had with the same person over several months or if you repeatedly discuss or quote from such an exchange, you could refer to the e-mail messages in your prose or in an endnote. But if you quote directly from a single message that you received or paraphrase its contents, it may be clearer and more economical to create a works-cited-list entry for the message.
Use the version of the name given in your source. For example, if the source gives the author’s name as Sarah, Duchess of York, then use that form and list the entry under “Sarah.” But if the source gives the author’s name as Sarah Margaret Ferguson, use that form and list the entry under “Ferguson, Sarah Margaret.”
If you are using several sources, and the name is treated variously, choose one form—using a reference source to determine the preferred form, if possible—and consolidate the entries under that name, following the guidelines in section 2.1.1 of the MLA Handbook. You may add an alternative form in parentheses after the name:
One interview is one work, no matter how many people are being interviewed or how many people are conducting the interview, so you should create only one entry. An example:
Washington, Denzel, and Michael B. Jordan. “Passing the Torch: Denzel Washington and Michael B. Jordan.” Interview conducted by Philip Galanes. The New York Times, 19 Apr. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/ 04/19/arts/television/denzel-washington-michael-b-jordan-black -panther-iceman-cometh.html.
Cite unpublished director’s notes by following the MLA template of core elements. List the director’s name in the “Author” slot and provide a description in place of a title. Provide the date the notes were written if available. In the optional-element slot at the end of the entry, indicate the format:
Carlsson, Knut. Notes on directing Taming of the Shrew. 1956. Unpublished typescript.
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