If an author’s name in my source is in all capital or lowercase letters, how should I style it in my paper?

In prose and works-cited-list entries, the first and last names of authors should begin with a capital letter. All other letters should be lowercase.

Let’s say, for example, that your source shows the following:


In your prose, you would write this name as “Smaranda Ştefanovici.” In your works-cited-list entry, you would write the name as “Ştefanovici, Smaranda.”

Note that in our publications, we standardize the capitalization of the name of the poet E. E. Cummings, even though his name is sometimes written as e. e. cummings, because the lowercase version was a styling decision made by his publishers, and the poet signed his name in various ways (“E. E. Cummings”).  Some authors lowercase the name bell hooks for ideological reasons. In that situation, we defer to the authors and style the name lowercase.

Work Cited

“E. E. Cummings American Poet.” Enyclopaedia Britannica, 10 Oct. 2019, www.britannica.com/biography/E-E-Cummings.