How do I cite an e-book in MLA style?

An e-book—that is, a book that lacks a URL and that you use software to read on a personal device or computer—is considered a version according to the MLA Handbook’s template of core elements:

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., e-book, Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

If you know the type of e-book you consulted (e.g., Kindle, EPUB), specify it instead of “e-book”:

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Kindle ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

When citing an e-book in your text, avoid using device-specific numbering systems. See section 3.3.3 for suggestions on alternative ways to identify the parts of a work.

Published 23 June 2016

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