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How do I cite a print magazine essay republished on a Web site?

If you are citing a print magazine essay republished on a Web site, follow the MLA format template and list the Web site as the container. Information about the original publication is optional and so may be provided in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry. You could also use the optional-element slot in the middle of the entry to provide the year of original publication. Or you could cite the Web site by itself without providing any information about the original. The examples below show three ways of citing a print essay republished on a Web site:

Kerouac, . . .

Published 8 August 2019

How do I cite an infographic?

To cite an infographic, follow the MLA format template.  If the infographic does not have an official title, provide a description of it. If you link directly to a PDF of the infographic, it is usually sufficient to cite the PDF as a standalone work and not one contained by the Web site hosting the link:

Infographic. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, www.foodspanlearning.org/_pdf/lesson-plan/JohnHopkins_info_0714.pdf.

If the infographic is embedded in another work, such as a blog post, one option is to refer to the infographic in your text and create a works-cited-list entry for the work in which the infographic is included:

The 100 Most Popular Keywords on Google infographic shows that the term most searched for during the twelve-month period ending 1 June 2018 was weather (Brumberg).  . . .

Published 23 April 2019

How do I cite the works-cited quick guide from The MLA Style Center ?

Cite the works-cited quick guide from The MLA Style Center by following the MLA format template described in the guide. If you are referring to the guide as a whole, you might cite it as follows: 

“Works Cited: A Quick Guide.” The MLA Style Center, Modern Language Association of America, 2018, style.mla.org/works-cited-a-quick-guide/.

If you are citing individual Web pages from the guide, create a works-cited-list entry for each page that you cite. Since each page has the same title, you might use the page header as the title of the source, followed by the title of the Web site as the title of the container.

Published 11 April 2019

How should I style a Web address like google.com?

As the MLA Handbook (2.5.2) notes, “When giving a URL,” or Web address, “copy it in full from your Web browser.” Thus, a Web address should generally be set roman and styled lowercase:

The search engine can be found at google.com.

Note, however, that a Web site’s address should not be confused with its title. In MLA style, you should use the title of a Web site as it appears on the site and italicize it as you would any independent work. Do not use the Web address as the title unless the address and the title are identical.

Published 1 April 2019

How do I cite a photo or other image reproduced in a Web site article?

When citing an image reproduced in an article on a Web site, you can generally refer to it in your text and then key the reference to a works-cited-list entry for the article. In the example below, the image, reproduced in an article on a Web site, is described in prose, and the name of the article’s author is provided in a parenthetical citation that keys to the works-cited-list entry:

A recent article summarizing a study of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa shows a scan of the original Mona Lisa so that readers can judge for themselves whether or not the woman in the painting is smiling (Daley).

Published 14 March 2019

How do I cite a Google Earth location?

To cite a Google Earth location, follow the MLA format template. Provide a description in place of a title. Then list Google Earth as the title of the container and the URL as the location. In the following example, the URL has been shortened, in accordance with our URL guidelines.

Map showing location of Leaning Tower of Pisa. Google Earth, earth.google.com/web/.

Read more about citing maps.

Published 12 March 2019

If I use Google Translate to help me understand sources, do I need to create a works-cited-list entry for it?

No, but if you are relying on Google Translate, we recommend that you alert your instructor as early as possible. If you are unable to talk with your instructor, indicate in an endnote in your paper that you have used Google’s translation tool.
Keep in mind, though, that Google Translate does not always translate accurately. As the Princeton University professor Simon Gikandi notes, “When I ask Google to translate ‘Call an ambulance’ into Swahili, it suggests ‘beat up the vehicle that carries sick people’” (qtd. in Jaschik).
Work Cited
Jaschik, Scott. “Computer Science as (Foreign Language) Admissions Requirement.”  . . .

Published 26 February 2019

How do I cite an artificial intelligence?

How you cite a program that uses artificial intelligence depends on the format in which you interact with it, as well as the goal of your citation. If you want to cite the source code of the program, you can refer to The MLA Style Center post about citing source code. However, if you want to cite the output of a program that uses artificial intelligence, like a chatbot, you should cite the platform on which you interacted with the program and the author of the program if you find one listed. For example, if you are describing your chat with a version of Eliza, . . .

Published 6 February 2019

Is it permissible to include in a works-cited-list entry a permalink I created for a source?

Yes. The MLA Handbook notes that writers should aim to “provide their audiences with useful information about their sources” (3). If you have created a permalink for a Web page using a trusted tool, such as Perma.cc, providing the link will be useful since it will allow your reader to access the page even if the original URL changes. You should, however, also provide the URL, since that is where you located the source. List both the URL and the permalink in the “Location” slot, separated by a comma:

Gibson, Angela. “URLs: Some Practical Advice.” The MLA Style Center,  . . .

Published 1 February 2019

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