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How do I make clear that a paraphrase is on the same page as a quotation I’ve given in the previous sentence?

The MLA Handbook (3.5) provides techniques for making citations more concise when a source is used more than once in succession. But it notes that you should “[a]lways give your citations in full . . . if these techniques would create ambiguity about your sources” (124). Thus, if you need to make clear that a paraphrase is on the same page as a quotation in a previous sentence, repeat the page number in parentheses after the paraphrase, as shown in the following example:

Hilma af Klint’s art explores “the invisible relationships that shape our world” (Müller-Westermann 7). This focus is not surprising,

Published 18 February 2019

If I paraphrase information from a source and then refer to that information again later in my paper, do I need to credit the source again?

If you paraphrase information from a source and cite that source appropriately, you do not need to cite subsequent references to that information. For example, if you are writing an essay about outer space, and you cite an article saying that there are about twenty thousand man-made objects orbiting the Earth (Witze), you do not need to cite the same source if you reintroduce that figure.
Work Cited
Witze, Alexandra. “The Quest to Conquer Earth’s Space Junk Problem.” Scientific American, 8 Sept. 2018,
article/ the-quest-to-conquer-earths-space-junk-problem/.

Published 12 February 2019

Should I create an entry for an e-mail conversation?

How you cite e-mail messages depends on how you are using them in your work. 
If you refer generally to a series of e-mail exchanges that you had with the same person over several months or if you repeatedly discuss or quote from such an exchange, you could refer to the e-mail messages in your prose or in an endnote. But if you quote directly from a single message that you received or paraphrase its contents, it may be clearer and more economical to create a works-cited-list entry for the message.

Published 25 October 2018

If my paraphrase consists of several sentences, should a citation for the original source appear after each sentence?

No. The citation should appear only after the final sentence of the paraphrase. If, however, it will be unclear to your reader where your source’s idea begins, include the author of the source in your prose rather than in a parenthetical citation.
For example, the following is a paraphrase from an essay by Naomi S. Baron:

Literacy consists of both reading and writing. The writing might take the form of marking up a text or making notes about it (Baron 194).

Here your reader might think that the first sentence is your idea and that Baron’s idea begins in the second sentence.

Published 12 April 2018

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