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How do I make clear that a paraphrase is on the same page as a quotation I’ve given in the previous sentence?

The MLA Handbook (3.5) provides techniques for making citations more concise when a source is used more than once in succession. But it notes that you should “[a]lways give your citations in full . . . if these techniques would create ambiguity about your sources” (124). Thus, if you need to make clear that a paraphrase is on the same page as a quotation in a previous sentence, repeat the page number in parentheses after the paraphrase, as shown in the following example:

Hilma af Klint’s art explores “the invisible relationships that shape our world” (Müller-Westermann 7). This focus is not surprising, . . .

Published 18 February 2019

If I paraphrase information from a source and then refer to that information again later in my paper, do I need to credit the source again?

If you paraphrase information from a source and cite that source appropriately, you do not need to cite subsequent references to that information. For example, if you are writing an essay about outer space, and you cite an article saying that there are about twenty thousand man-made objects orbiting the Earth (Witze), you do not need to cite the same source if you reintroduce that figure.
Work Cited
Witze, Alexandra. “The Quest to Conquer Earth’s Space Junk Problem.” Scientific American, 8 Sept. 2018, www.scientificamerican.com/
article/ the-quest-to-conquer-earths-space-junk-problem/.

Published 12 February 2019

Should I create an entry for an e-mail conversation?

How you cite e-mail messages depends on how you are using them in your work. 
If you refer generally to a series of e-mail exchanges that you had with the same person over several months or if you repeatedly discuss or quote from such an exchange, you could refer to the e-mail messages in your prose or in an endnote. But if you quote directly from a single message that you received or paraphrase its contents, it may be clearer and more economical to create a works-cited-list entry for the message.
 
  . . .

Published 25 October 2018

If more than one source for a paraphrased idea is cited in a parenthetical citation, in what order do I list the sources?

If you paraphrase a single idea from more than one source and the sources are equally important, the order in which you list them is up to you. To be neutral, you might list them alphabetically: 

While reading may be the core of literacy, literacy can be complete only when reading is accompanied by writing (Baron 194; Jacobs 55).

But if some sources are more relevant to the idea than others, you might list the sources in order of relevance:

Scholars have long advanced the idea that political and economic forces undergird how narratives are shaped (Jameson; Poovey; Cohen). 

 

 
  . . .

Published 23 October 2018

If I cite a work that has no page numbers and I give the author’s name at the beginning of my sentence, how does the reader know where the author’s idea ends, since there is no parenthetical citation?

As the MLA Handbook notes, when you borrow an idea from a source, “it is important to signal at the end . . . that you are switching to another source or to your own ideas” (126). A parenthetical citation is just one way to indicate this switch. You may also use prose, as in the following example:

Original:
Terry Eagleton argues that The Communist Manifesto is more relevant today than it was in 1848, when it was published. The language of class warfare permeates twenty-first-century discourse.

Revised:
Terry Eagleton argues that The Communist Manifesto is more relevant today than it was in 1848, . . .

Published 2 October 2018

How do I cite a paraphrase and a quotation that occur in the same sentence?

If you need to cite a paraphrase and a quotation that occur in the same sentence, you may provide the page numbers at the end of the sentence:

Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” efforts were in their best interest (165; see 160-68).

You could also provide the page number for the quotation in parentheses and then insert an endnote about the paraphrase:

Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” . . .

Published 26 July 2018

If I paraphrase a source that mentions other sources, which one do I cite?

You cite the source you consult—not the indirect source.
Paraphrasing Information
Let’s say you read the following passage from an article by Eric Pfanner in The New York Times, where the author draws on information from other sources:

Simon Jackman, a Stanford University professor whose work is published by The Huffington Post, and Drew Linzer, a professor at Emory University who runs a Web site called Votamatic.com, predicted the exact number of electoral college votes that Mr. Obama received—332. . . .

The following examples paraphrase information presented by Pfanner and cite his article as the source of the information, . . .

Published 12 June 2018

If my paraphrase consists of several sentences, should a citation for the original source appear after each sentence?

No. The citation should appear only after the final sentence of the paraphrase. If, however, it will be unclear to your reader where your source’s idea begins, include the author of the source in your prose rather than in a parenthetical citation.
For example, the following is a paraphrase from an essay by Naomi S. Baron:

Literacy consists of both reading and writing. The writing might take the form of marking up a text or making notes about it (Baron 194).

Here your reader might think that the first sentence is your idea and that Baron’s idea begins in the second sentence.

Published 12 April 2018

Where do I place an exclamation point or a question mark in relation to a parenthetical reference for a paraphrase?

You should place an exclamation point or a question mark after the parenthetical reference for a paraphrase:

Why did Karl Marx say that a commodity is a strange object (47)?
Work Cited
Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels, vol. 1, Progress Publishers, 1887, www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/ download/pdf/Capital-Volume-I.pdf.

It may, however, be better to revise:

Karl Marx said that a commodity is a strange object (47). Why?

 
  . . .

Published 19 December 2017

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