How do I cite a text message?

Cite a text message the way you would cite an e-mail message (see the MLA Handbook, p. 29) or a letter. Follow the MLA template of core elements. List the sender of the text message as the author and then provide a description in place of a title. You may list the name of the recipient in the “Other contributors” slot. Then give the date of the message:

Brown, Jane. Text message regarding election. Received by Allan Smith, 1 Sept. 2016.

If you were the recipient of the message, you can indicate this in your description:

Brown, Jane. Text message to author. 1 Sept. 2016.

You might also use the description to indicate that you were one among many recipients of a group message:

Brown, Jane. Text message to Brooklyn Votes staff. 1 Sept. 2016.


Published 2 March 2018

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