How do I cite a text message?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook.

Cite a text message the way you would cite a letter. Follow the MLA format template. List the sender of the text message as the author and then provide a description in place of a title. Include the recipient’s name in the description. Then give the date of the message:

Brown, Jane. Text message to Allan Smith. 1 Sept. 2016.

If you were the recipient of the message, you can indicate this in your description:

Brown, Jane. Text message to author. 1 Sept. 2016.

You might also use the description to indicate that you were one among many recipients of a group message:

Brown, Jane. Text message to Brooklyn Votes staff. 1 Sept. 2016.