A column is a regular feature in a periodical publication like a magazine or newspaper. Columns are a way of branding or organizing information and do not need to be included in a works-cited-list entry if the work has a title; however, if you wish to include a column title, insert it in the middle optional-element slot after the title of the source:
When the column title is effectively the work’s title, include it:
A column title is distinct from the section name of a print newspaper. See our post on newspaper sections.
Yes. When you cite specific pages of a Web site, create works-cited-list entries for each page:
As noted on the Web site The William Blake Archive, “[T]he decade from 1808 to 1818 was not a profitable one for Blake” (“About”). By 1818, however, Blake began to print “Innocence and Experience as parts of the combined Songs” (“Songs”).
“About Blake.” The William Blake Archive, edited by Morris Eaves et al., 2017, www.blakearchive.org/staticpage/biography.
“Songs of Innocence (Composed 1789).” The William Blake Archive, edited by Morris Eaves et al., 2017, www.blakearchive.org/work/s-inn.
Do not create an entry for a Web site as a whole and then cross-reference individual pages to it, the way you might when you are citing several short stories in a printed anthology. Whereas your reader cannot access an individual story without obtaining the printed anthology as a whole, your reader can access individual Web pages without going to the home page first, so individual entries will allow your reader to access the information more quickly.
The script of a play and each performance of it are different works and should be cited separately. Apply the MLA template of core elements to the work to create your works-cited-list entry.
Although the title of a published play is styled with italics, use quotation marks to indicate that a work is unpublished. You may use the optional-element slot at the end of the entry to provide supplemental information about the work:
To cite a performance of the same work, start with the title and then follow the template of core elements to list the other contributors (author, director, performers), the publisher (the production company), the date of the performance, and the location of the performance:
If you see the play on more than one date, you’re effectively seeing different versions of the work; thus, a new entry is required:
References in the Text
If you refer to both the script and the performance in your writing, be sure to distinguish them in context. For example, you could write:
For in-text references, cite the script by the author’s last name and cite the performance by the performance name, in accordance with the works-cited-list entries.
This principle applies to other types of works that appear in written form and also are performed, like screenplays and films as well as musical compositions and performances.
Cite a photograph found on a Web site the same way you would cite any work of art found online. See our post on citing images viewed in person or online. As always, key your in-text citation to the first element of the works-cited-list entry.
To cite a chronology from a book, mention the chronology in your writing:
The chronology at the end of The Oxford History of the French Revolution provides the order of major events in the period but no interpretation of them (Doyle).
Then create an entry for the book in your works-cited list:
If, however, the chronology has an author separate from the author of the book, list the author of the chronology and the chronology’s title (or a description of it) in your work-cited-list entry:
In our house style, we capitalize the letter in lettered volumes:
A poem by Louise Labé appears in volume C of The Longman Anthology of World Literature.
In a works-cited-list entry for a work by more than one author, the first name is inverted because the entry is alphabetized under the first author’s last name. Subsequent names are listed in normal order because they are easier to read that way, and MLA style aims to be reader-friendly.
In published works, credits–that is, permission to reprint images or other material–are given in the front matter, notes, or figure captions. A credit is a form of acknowledgment and must be worded in the way that the owner of the material specifies.
In a student paper, a credit may be given as a courtesy in a note or caption.
You should place an exclamation point or a question mark after the parenthetical reference for a paraphrase:
Why did Karl Marx say that a commodity is a strange object (47)?
Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, edited by Frederick Engels, vol. 1, Progress Publishers, 1887, www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/ download/pdf/Capital-Volume-I.pdf.
It may, however, be better to revise:
Karl Marx said that a commodity is a strange object (47). Why?
When a verb in a quotation does not fit syntactically into your sentence, you may use brackets to change the tense:
If Charles Dickens were alive today, he would likely say, “It [is] the best of times, it [is] the worst of times” (5).
Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. Updated and rev. ed., Penguin Classics, 2003.
Brackets can be distracting to your reader, though, so it is often better to revise:
In 1859, Charles Dickens wrote in A Tale of Two Cities, “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” (5). If he were alive today, he would likely make a similar comment about our era.