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How do I make clear that a paraphrase is on the same page as a quotation I’ve given in the previous sentence?

The MLA Handbook (3.5) provides techniques for making citations more concise when a source is used more than once in succession. But it notes that you should “[a]lways give your citations in full . . . if these techniques would create ambiguity about your sources” (124). Thus, if you need to make clear that a paraphrase is on the same page as a quotation in a previous sentence, repeat the page number in parentheses after the paraphrase, as shown in the following example:

Hilma af Klint’s art explores “the invisible relationships that shape our world” (Müller-Westermann 7). This focus is not surprising,

Published 18 February 2019

How do I show the blank space between stanzas when quoting from a poem?

Use a single line space to separate stanzas of poetry, as in this excerpt from Felicia Hemans’s “The Image in Lava”:

Thou thing of years departed!
What ages have gone by,
Since here the mournful seal was set
By love and agony!
Temple and tower have mouldered,
Empires from earth have passed
And woman’s heart hath left a trace
Those glories to outlast!
And childhood’s fragile image
Thus fearfully enshrined,
Survives the proud memorials reared
By conquerors of mankind. (lines 1–12)

When quoting poetry in your prose (i.e., when quoting three lines or fewer), use a double slash to indicate a stanza break,

Published 31 January 2019

How do you cite a famous saying?

All well-known quotations that are attributable to an individual or to a text require citations. You should quote a famous saying as it appears in a primary or secondary source and then cite that source. While it is acceptable to cite a famous saying from a Web site or a book that lists famous quotations, quoting from the original source provides readers with more context and could strengthen the argument you are making. The following two sentences provide examples:

As Alexander Pope said, “A little Learning is a dang’rous Thing” (line 215).
As Alexander Pope said, “A little learning is a dangerous thing”

Published 3 January 2019

What percent of a source may I directly quote in my paper?

Writers, including student writers, should quote only what is necessary to make their point. Relying on a percentage to determine what’s necessary is unlikely to be useful.
Writers preparing to publish their work should keep copyright laws in mind and consider the principles of fair use. One consideration in determining fair use (but certainly not the only one) is the amount borrowed. The MLA is updating its fair use guidelines, formerly published in the MLA Style Manual. In the meantime, we recommend the guidelines offered by the United States Copyright Office and the Association of University Presses.

Published 4 December 2018

If I repeatedly use a quotation from the same source, do I need to use quotation marks each time?

You should generally use quotation marks if you repeat a quotation from the same source, but you may omit quotation marks when referring back to a concept or method (e.g., distant reading) mentioned in the source:

Moretti takes issue with this tendency to regard literature at any level as “a world” complete and classifiable rather than one in production and changing unevenly. Ironically, coming from someone obviously given to spatial diagrams of literary phenomena, “distant reading” adheres to the principle that “spatial proximity never turns into functional interaction” (14). Moretti won’t let us construe the distance implied by distant reading in opposition to the closeness and polysemy of literary language.

Published 2 November 2018

Should I create an entry for an e-mail conversation?

How you cite e-mail messages depends on how you are using them in your work. 
If you refer generally to a series of e-mail exchanges that you had with the same person over several months or if you repeatedly discuss or quote from such an exchange, you could refer to the e-mail messages in your prose or in an endnote. But if you quote directly from a single message that you received or paraphrase its contents, it may be clearer and more economical to create a works-cited-list entry for the message.

Published 25 October 2018

How do I cite dialogue spoken by a character in a video game?

To cite dialogue spoken by a character in a video game, transcribe the words you hear or copy the quote from the text box displaying it and enclose the words in double quotation marks. Since there are no markers indicating where in the video the dialogue appears, it can be helpful to give a general sense of where the dialogue appears:  

At the start of Snake Pass, Doodle wakes Noodle up and tells him what’s happened: “The gate . . . the gate is broken! If we don’t fix it, we’ll be stuck here forever!” 
Work Cited
Snake Pass.

Published 26 June 2018

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