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If I have a work by one author and a work by that author and coauthors in my works-cited-list, how do I order my entries?

A work by one author should be listed before a work by that author and a coauthor.

Rappaport, Joanne. The Disappearing Mestizo: Configuring Difference in the Colonial Kingdom of Granada. Duke UP, 2014.
Rappaport, Joanne, and Tom Cummins. Beyond the Lettered City: Indigenous Literacies in the Andes. Duke UP, 2012.

If there is more than one coauthored work by that author in the list of works cited, list the entries alphabetically by the last name of the coauthor.

Ender, Evelyne, and Serafina Lawrence. “Inside a Red Cover: Proust and the Art of the Book.” Proust and the Arts, . . .

Published 6 June 2019

How do I cite comics or a graphic novel if I want to credit several collaborators as equal creators of the work?

When you write about a collaborative work such as comics or a graphic novel without focusing on one person’s role, begin your works-cited-list entry with the title. Then provide the names of the creators in the “Other contributors” slot preceded by a description of the role they played:

March. By John Lewis and Andrew Aydin, illustrated by Nate Powell, book 1, Top Shelf Productions, 2013.

As the MLA Handbook advises (17), when the role cannot be described using a phrase like “illustrated by,” use a noun followed by a comma:

Superman: Birthright. By Mark Waid, . . .

Published 27 December 2018

If a Web site has a director rather than an author, should I organize my works-cited-list entry under the director’s name?

In general, you should list your entry for a Web site under the name of the creator. The creator may be an author, an editor, or a director. Many Web sites coin terms like “project lead” or “curator” to refer to the creator. The creator can also be a group of persons, an organization, or a government entity. You may need to consult an About page or a Credits page to determine the site’s creator.
For example, on the Credits page for Voice of the Shuttle, Alan Liu is listed as the director of the site:

In your works-cited-list entry, . . .

Published 26 November 2018

If more than one person is interviewed in the same interview, do I create separate entries for each person or treat them as coauthors in a single entry?

One interview is one work, no matter how many people are being interviewed or how many people are conducting the interview, so you should create only one entry. An example:
Washington, Denzel, and Michael B. Jordan. “Passing the Torch: Denzel Washington and Michael B. Jordan.” Interview conducted by Philip Galanes. The New York Times, 19 Apr. 2018,

Published 17 October 2018

When is a comma used before et al. in MLA style?

In MLA style, a comma is generally only used before et al. in the “Author” slot of works-cited-list entries when the author’s first and last names are reversed:

Burdick, Anne, et al. Digital_Humanities. MIT P, 2012. 

The comma tells your reader that the name Anne is out of normal position and that the abbreviation attaches to the full name, not just to Anne.
In contrast, in an entry starting with a name that is not reversed—for example, a Chinese, Japanese, or Korean name—no comma is needed:

Liu Chang et al. “Cong Changchungong dao Zhongcuigong.” Zijincheng, . . .

Published 11 September 2018

When an article is written by several authors and each section is individually authored, how do I cite a section?

Mention the author of the section you are citing in a signal phrase. For clarity, you might indicate the name of the section in your prose, especially if an author writes more than one section:  

In “Faculty Members, Accom­modation, and Access in Higher Education,” Rosemary Garland-Thomson writes, in the section The Changing Profession: “Accommodating disability in the workplace is an opportunity to define the essence of a job.” 

The parenthetical citation must key to the article as a whole, so provide the last name of the first author of the article and then et al.: 

In “Faculty Members, . . .

Published 30 April 2018

If I cite sources with the same lead author but different coauthors, do I use et al.?

Yes. In MLA style, when a work has more than two authors or editors, the works-cited-list entry provides the name of the lead author or editor and et al. 
For example, if you are citing the following work—in which Sandy Taylor is the lead author and John Smith and Wendy Johnson are listed as the coauthors—your entry would appear thus:

Taylor, Sandy, et al. “Collaboration in the Twenty-First Century.” Journal of Collaborative Writing, vol. 20, no. 1, 2017, pp. 15-25.

If this same set of authors also wrote another article that you cite, and their names appear in the work in the same order as they do in the first article, . . .

Published 13 April 2018

How do I cite a chapter by an individual author in a work with coauthors?

When you cite a chapter by an individual author in a work with coauthors, you must create a separate works-cited-list entry for each chapter:

Althusser, Louis. “Marx’s Critique.” Reading Capital, by Althusser and Étienne Balibar, translated by Ben Brewster, Verso, 2009, pp. 182-200.

Balibar, Étienne. “On Reproduction.” Reading Capital, by Louis Althusser and Balibar, translated by Ben Brewster, Verso, 2009, pp. 285-305.

Published 9 February 2018

In works-cited-list entries for a work by more than one author, why is only the name of the first author inverted?

In a works-cited-list entry for a work by more than one author, the first name is inverted because the entry is alphabetized under the first author’s last name. Subsequent names are listed in normal order because they are easier to read that way, and MLA style aims to be reader-friendly.
  . . .

Published 21 December 2017

When a work by three or more authors is mentioned in the text of a research paper (rather than in a parenthetical citation), should the names of all the authors be included or only the first one, followed by et al.?

Reserve the use of the abbreviation et al. for the list of works cited and parenthetical citations. In the text, spell out the authors’ names or, if you are referring to a work by several authors, state the name of the first-listed author, followed by “and others.” For more on the use of names, see 1.1.1 of the MLA Handbook.

Published 7 June 2016

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