If I am writing a paper in Spanish, should I follow Spanish rules or MLA style rules for the placement of a period in relation to quotation marks?Answer
Follow Spanish rules.
Read more on writing papers in foreign languages.
Follow Spanish rules.
Read more on writing papers in foreign languages.
Yes. For an example, see our post on citing the Style Center‘s works-cited quick guide.
To create a works-cited-list entry for a photograph that credits an organization rather than an individual photographer, follow the MLA format template. Since the name of the photographer is not provided, omit the Author element and begin the entry with the title of the photograph, if given, or a description in place of a title. Then list the name of the organization in the “Publisher” slot, followed by the date of publication. In a second container, list the name of the Web site where you found the image and a URL.
Because your entry starts with the title of the photograph, your in-text citation will key to the title in the entry:
In a playful photograph of Cassius Clay (aka Mohammad Ali) from 1964, the boxer is shown pretending to punch the four members of the Beatles, who tilt away from his boxing glove like a row of falling dominoes (Ali Birthday Boxing).
Ali Birthday Boxing. Associated Press, 17 Feb. 1964. AP Images, www.apimages.com/metadata/Index/Ali-Birthday-Boxing/53549344723246fab043f767baf5e825/18/1.
When you cite information found in a linguistics corpus—that is, a collection of texts used for linguistic analysis—follow the MLA format template. Usually the Web site associated with a corpus will give you the information necessary to construct a citation. For example, if you wanted to cite The Corpus of Contemporary American English, an online corpus compiled by Mark Davies, you might consult the page containing frequently asked questions, which has citation information for all the corpora he has compiled. The following provides an example of an in-text citation and a works-cited-list entry:
From The Corpus of Contemporary American English, which gathers usage information on American English from 1990 to 2017, we can determine that the word Anthropocene has a relatively recent origin, first appearing in 2005 (Davies).
Davies, Mark. The Corpus of Contemporary American English. 2008, www.english-corpora.org/coca/.
The order of information in your citations should always match the order in which you present information in your text. Thus, when you cite nonconsecutive lines of poetry, make sure that the order of the line numbers in your in-text citation corresponds to the order of the quotations in your prose. The following provides an example:
The opening lines of Homer’s Odyssey tell us that Odysseus, a “complicated man,” “wandered and was lost” after he and the other Greeks “wrecked the holy town of Troy” (lines 1, 3, and 2).
Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Emily Wilson, W. W. Norton, 2018.
Read our related post on citing quotations that are on nonconsecutive pages.
You are not obligated to tell your reader the original sources of the quotations. Nor should you include any note numbers or parenthetical documentation from the original source, as noted in our post on what you can omit when quoting sources. If you wish to tell your reader the source of the quotations, you can provide the information in a single footnote or endnote at the end of the passage.
Follow the MLA format template. List the interviewee as the author, followed by the title of the chapter in which the interview appears. List the title of the book as the title of the container and the author of the book as an “other” contributor. Then list the publication details and the page range for the chapter:
Bechdel, Alison. “Alison Bechdel (2006 and 2012).” Outside the Box: Interviews with Contemporary Cartoonists, by Hillary L. Chute, U of Chicago P, 2014, pp. 155–76.
Note that this example is an exception to our guidelines for citing a chapter in a book by one author. You would normally create an entry only for the book, not for an individual chapter. But since, by convention, the interviewee is considered the author of an interview, the chapter containing the interview is cited separately. If, however, you cite several interviews in the book and your discussion focuses on the work of the interviewer, then you might create an entry for the book as a whole and key your in-text citations for the interviews to it.
Read more on citing interviews.
How you cite a grant proposal depends on where you found it. As always, follow the MLA format template and list the information provided in the version of the source you are using.
Let’s say the proposal is in your possession. In that case, list the creator of the proposal in the “Author” slot. The creator may be an individual or, as shown in the example below, an organization. Then provide the title of the proposal or a description of it, followed by the date the proposal was written, if known. In the optional-element slot at the end of the entry, list the format:
Write Now. Proposal to the Foundation for Innovation in Musical Theater. 28 Apr. 2000. Typescript.
If you found the proposal in a physical archive, list the date in the middle optional-element slot and include the name of the archive as the title of the container along with the archive’s location:
Write Now. Proposal to the Foundation for Innovation in Musical Theater. 28 Apr. 2000. Director’s Archive, Foundation for Innovation in Musical Theater, New York. Typescript.
If you found the proposal as a scan in a digital archive, list the Web site as the container and the URL as the location:
Write Now. Proposal to the Foundation for Innovation in Musical Theater. 28 Apr. 2000. Archive of Grants in the Performing Arts, www.artsgrants.org/write-now.
For more information on citing archival materials, see “A Guide to Citing Materials from Physical Archives and Collections” and “Citing Artifacts in a Digital Archive.”
No. WordPress is a software tool that allows users to create Web sites. While a Web site (like The MLA Style Center) is a container, the underlying software it runs on is not. The MLA Handbook provides further guidance on which kinds of online services should be considered containers (42).
When you create a works-cited-list entry for a blog post, follow the MLA format template and give the name of the blog as the container. In the entry below, the blog’s title is Dear English Major:
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
If the conference that accepted your presentation was canceled, you may list the presentation on your CV under a header such as “Accepted Papers” or “Invited Speeches” and note that the conference did not take place. The following provides an example:
Chen, Joanne. “Strategies for Teaching Grammar to First-Year College Students.” Conference on College Composition and Communication, Milwaukee, WI, 25–28 Mar. 2020. Conference canceled.
If you have an abstract or the paper, you might consider depositing it on a noncommercial repository like the MLA’s Humanities Commons so that you can get a DOI, share your work with colleagues, and invite feedback.
Be the first to read new posts and updates about MLA style.