The entry for a story or for the comments will have two containers. The document can be considered a kind of anthology, which means that the stories and comments are contained in the document. Blackboard is the container of the document. If you want to cite comments your instructor has left in the document, provide a generic description in place of a title.
The following provides an example of how to cite a story in a document:
Reiter, Ben A. “Diary of a Writing Student.” Writing 101: A Course Anthology.Blackboard, uploaded by Penny Scrivener, 5 July 2019, blackboard.usa.edu/.
The following provides an example of how to cite instructor’s comments in the same document:
Scrivener, Penny. Instructor’s comments. Writing 101: A Course Anthology. Blackboard, uploaded by Scrivener, 5 July 2019, blackboard.usa.edu/.
If your instructor provides the publication details for the book on the handout, you can generally use this information to create your works-cited-list entry. You could also consult the book yourself to verify that the publication details are correct.
You should generally include in your citations any information that will help your reader locate the material you are citing.
When you summarize a scene from a novel, you might include page numbers so that your reader can find the passage. Similarly, including timings for film scenes you discuss may help your reader locate them.
If a title or short title in parentheses must be given in a parenthetical citation, do not nest parentheses within parentheses. Instead, change the parentheses around the title or short title to square brackets:
The chorus of one of R.E.M.’s songs begins: “Don’t go back to Rockville / And waste another year” (“[Don’t]”).
R.E.M. “(Don’t Go Back to) Rockville.” Reckoning, I.R.S., 1984.
---. “So. Central Rain (I’m Sorry).” Reckoning, I.R.S., 1984.
Note, however, that in the unusual case where you need to cite an entity whose name starts or ends with parentheses, such as the band Sunn O))), maintain the integrity of the name: do not change the parentheses to square brackets. For readability, you might instead provide the name in your prose:
The band Sunn O))) opens its song “The Sinking Belle (Blue Sheep)” as follows: “Passing by rows and rows / In silence, I stand alone. . . .”
Sunn O))). “The Sinking Belle (Blue Sheep).” Genius, Genius Media Group, 2019, genius.com/Sunn-o-the-sinking-belle-blue-sheep-lyrics.
How you cite your own medical record depends on its location, but as always, follow the MLA format template.
If the record is in your possession, provide a description of the record in the Title of Source element and the date range that the record covers:
Author’s military medical record. Sept. 2010-Aug. 2012.
If the record is located at an institution, such as a hospital, provide the name of the institution as the location:
Author’s military medical record. Sept. 2010-Aug. 2012, Manhattan VA Hospital.
If you accessed the record online, provide the name of the Web site as the title of the container and the URL for the site as the location:
Author’s military medical record. VA Harbor Health Care Systems, Sept. 2010-Aug. 2012, www.nyharbor.va.gov.
If you wish to cite a particular document within the record, use two containers. Provide a description of the document in the Title of Source element and a description of the record in the Title of Container element, followed by the date of the document. In the second container, list the name of the Web site and the URL:
Biopsy report. Author’s military medical record, 10 Sept. 2010. VA Harbor Health Care Systems, www.nyharbor.va.gov.
In a manuscript or student paper, it is fine for a block quotation to be split across two pages or for the entire quotation to be moved to the top of the next page. In a professionally published work, the publisher will determine how the quotation should be set.
Sometimes each individual work in an anthology has a headnote, an introduction, or other material introducing it. To cite this material, follow the MLA format template. List the editor of the anthology in the Author element. Note in the example below that the label editor is omitted because in this case the editor is the author of the introductory material.
Next provide the title of the material and then the title of the anthology as the title of the container. In the Contributors element, list the editor again, this time with the label edited by. Since you will have already provided the full name in the Author element, use the last name only here. Then list the publication details for the anthology, followed by the page range for the introductory material:
Lester, Blake. “Edith Wharton’s ‘Roman Fever.’” Anthology of Early Twentieth-Century Literature, edited by Blake, Ink Press, 1980, pp. 499-500.
If the introductory material does not have a title, provide a description that includes the name of the work:
Lester, Blake. Introduction to Edith Wharton’s “Roman Fever.” Anthology of Early Twentieth-Century Literature, edited by Blake, Ink Press, 1980, pp. 499-500.
As always, your in-text citations should key to your entry in the works-cited list, so if you were to cite from the introduction above, your citation would include “Lester” and a page number.
Whenever you cite a republished excerpt, you should document the work in which the excerpt appears, not the original source.
Thus, to cite a scene that has been excerpted from a film and republished on a Web site, follow the MLA format template and include the title or description of the scene as the title of the source and relevant details about the Web site that republished the excerpt. If the Web site includes a transcript of the scene as well as the film clip, as this example does, indicate in your prose or in the final optional-element slot if you are citing the clip or the transcript:
“Marc Antony Addresses Roman Citizenry on the Death of Julius Caesar.” American Rhetoric: Movie Speeches, 2001– , www.americanrhetoric.com/MovieSpeeches/moviespeechjuliuscaesarantony.html. Film clip.
If in your paper you discuss the performance by Marlon Brando as the character Marc Antony in the featured scene, you can provide this information in your entry as a middle optional element:
“Marc Antony Addresses Roman Citizenry on the Death of Julius Caesar.” Performance by Marlon Brando. American Rhetoric: Movie Speeches, 2001– , www.americanrhetoric.com/MovieSpeeches/moviespeechjuliuscaesarantony.html. Film clip.
We follow the guidelines in TheChicago Manual of Style, which notes that full names of most wars are capitalized and that generic terms are lowercased (“Wars”). The manual offers various options for referring to the two world wars; choose either roman numerals (World War I, World War II, World Wars I and II) or words (the First World War, the Second World War, the First and Second World Wars, the two world wars) to name these wars consistently throughout your paper.
“Wars and Revolutions.” The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 8.113, U of Chicago P, 2017, www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/
Follow the MLA guidelines for documenting an interview, treating the interviewee as the author and providing the title of the video. Then, following the MLA guidelines for citing an online video, list YouTube in the Title of the Container element, the name of the uploader in the Contributor element, the date of upload in the Publication Date element, and the URL in the Location element:
West, Kanye. Jimmy Kimmel’s Full Interview with Kanye West. YouTube, uploaded by Jimmy Kimmel Live, 10 Aug. 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmZjaYdS3fA.
The title of the video is italicized because it is a stand-alone work. Since it is clear who conducted the interview, there is no need to include the standard phrase “interview conducted by Jimmy Kimmel.”
Note that the entry precisely reproduces the name of the account that uploaded the video, Jimmy Kimmel Live, which differs slightly from the name of the television show Jimmy Kimmel Live!
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