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How do I cite raw data from a survey or poll I created? How do I cite published data?

Citing Data You Collected
In a report on data collected from a survey you designed and distributed, clarify the data source in the body of the report instead of creating a works-cited-list entry for the survey. Be sure to explain in detail the methodology you used—that is, how you distributed the survey and collected and sorted responses. It’s also good practice to make the survey instrument available to readers, either by including it as an appendix to your report or by providing a link to it in an endnote. Some researchers even make their data sets available to readers, often in an Excel file.

Published 27 November 2018

How do I cite search results as evidence?

Search results are not a work, so no works-cited-list entry is needed. If you are referring to the results as evidence, you can simply name the database in your prose, as in the following example:

At first—to judge from the 190-odd results for the phrase in a JSTOR search at the time of writing—invocations of distant reading were concentrated in debates about world literature.*

*The quotation has been modified from Andrew Goldstone’s “The Doxa of Reading” (PMLA, vol. 132, no. 3, May 2017, pp. 636–42).
  . . .

Published 27 September 2018

How do I cite a data table?

To cite a table, follow the MLA format template to create a works-cited-list entry for its source. The following example is an entry for a census report on language course enrollments:

Goldberg, David, et al. Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013. Modern Language Association, Feb. 2015,

This report has page numbers as well as numbered figures and tables, so the parenthetical reference will include the page number on which the table appears and the table number, in square brackets:

The MLA’s latest census of postsecondary institutions in the United States shows that 50.6% of the nation’s 1,562,179 enrollments in foreign language courses were in Spanish (Goldberg et al.

Published 2 January 2017

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