If you quote unique language from a sign, create a works-cited-list entry for it.
A sign advises you to “shout, wave arms, throw stones” if you encounter a bear in the park (“Bear Country”).
For the entry, follow the MLA format template. The entry below includes a description in place of the title, the publisher of the sign, and the location where the sign was viewed. Since no date appears on the sign, the date the sign was viewed appears in the optional-element slot at the end of the entry:
“Bear Country” sign. National Park Service, Yosemite National Park. Viewed 11 June 2016.
The primary goal of documentation is not to ensure perpetual access to a source but to verify the publication facts of the version you consulted. Thus it is acceptable to cite the original version with the defunct URL:
Bluestone, Gabrielle. “Three Jailed in Myanmar for Posting Image of a Buddha Wearing Headphones.” Gawker, 19 Mar. 2015, gawker.com/three-jailed-in-myanmar-for-posting-image-of-a-buddha-w-1692317287.
If you subsequently fact-check your work using an archiving Web site such as Wayback Machine, however, we recommend that you cite the new version of the page that you have consulted; be sure to include the name of the original site in your entry:
Bluestone, Gabrielle. “Three Jailed in Myanmar for Posting Image of a Buddha Wearing Headphones.” Gawker, 19 Mar. 2015. Wayback Machine, web.archive.org/web/20150319101001/http://gawker.com/three-jailed-in-myanmar-for-posting-image-of-a-buddha-w-1692317287.
To cite the electronic portion of a textbook, follow the MLA format template. Begin with the title of the material or a description of it. Then provide the name of the Web site where you accessed the material as the title of the container. Then list the name of the publisher of the Web site (if different from the site’s title), the date the material was posted (or if the post date is not given, the copyright date of the Web site), and the URL. If you wish to indicate that the work is a companion to the textbook, you can use the optional-element slot at the end of the entry to specify this fact:
Pitch package. LaunchPad, Macmillan, 2017, macmillanhighered.com/smh. Material accompanying The St. Martin’s Handbook.
To cite a photograph in a personal collection, follow the MLA format template. List the author of the photograph, if known. Then provide a description of the photograph in place of a title. List the date the photograph was taken, if known. In the optional-element slot at the end of the entry, indicate that the photograph is in a personal collection:
Fanatic, Jane. Photograph of Jane Austen’s House Museum. 2 Sept. 2017. Author’s personal collection.
In an annotated bibliography, the annotations should generally be no more than one paragraph. If, however, you need several paragraphs, indent each one, but do not also double-space between them. If your paper is double-spaced, then double-space the paragraphs themselves.
The names of journal editors are generally only included in works-cited-list entries for special issues of journals:
Charney, Michael W. “Literary Culture on the Burma-Manipur Frontier in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.” Literary Cultures at the Frontiers: Literature and Identity in the Early Modern World, special issue of The Medieval History Journal, edited by Sumit Guha, vol. 14, no. 2, 2011, pp. 159-81.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., editors. Identities. Special issue of Critical Inquiry, vol. 18, no. 4, 1992.
Although it is not conventional to include the name of a journal editor for citations of articles in regular issues of journals and we do not recommend doing so, if you elect to include one, place it in the “Other contributors” slot:
McCarthy, Anne C. “Reading the Red Bull Sublime.” PMLA, edited by Wai Chee Dimock, vol. 132, no. 3, May 2017, pp. 543-57.
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