Sometimes each individual work in an anthology has a headnote, an introduction, or other material introducing it. To cite this material, follow the MLA format template. List the editor of the anthology in the Author element. Note in the example below that the label editor is omitted because in this case the editor is the author of the introductory material.
Next provide the title of the material and then the title of the anthology as the title of the container. In the Contributors element, list the editor again, this time with the label edited by. Since you will have already provided the full name in the Author element, use the last name only here. Then list the publication details for the anthology, followed by the page range for the introductory material:
If the introductory material does not have a title, provide a description that includes the name of the work:
As always, your in-text citations should key to your entry in the works-cited list, so if you were to cite from the introduction above, your citation would include “Lester” and a page number.
Read more on citing introductions.
Whenever you cite a republished excerpt, you should document the work in which the excerpt appears, not the original source.
Thus, to cite a scene that has been excerpted from a film and republished on a Web site, follow the MLA format template and include the title or description of the scene as the title of the source and relevant details about the Web site that republished the excerpt. If the Web site includes a transcript of the scene as well as the film clip, as this example does, indicate in your prose or in the final optional-element slot if you are citing the clip or the transcript:
If in your paper you discuss the performance by Marlon Brando as the character Marc Antony in the featured scene, you can provide this information in your entry as a middle optional element:
We follow the guidelines in The Chicago Manual of Style, which notes that full names of most wars are capitalized and that generic terms are lowercased (“Wars”). The manual offers various options for referring to the two world wars; choose either roman numerals (World War I, World War II, World Wars I and II) or words (the First World War, the Second World War, the First and Second World Wars, the two world wars) to name these wars consistently throughout your paper.
“Wars and Revolutions.” The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 8.113, U of Chicago P, 2017, www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/
Follow the MLA guidelines for documenting an interview, treating the interviewee as the author and providing the title of the video. Then, following the MLA guidelines for citing an online video, list YouTube in the Title of the Container element, the name of the uploader in the Contributor element, the date of upload in the Publication Date element, and the URL in the Location element:
West, Kanye. Jimmy Kimmel’s Full Interview with Kanye West. YouTube, uploaded by Jimmy Kimmel Live, 10 Aug. 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmZjaYdS3fA.
The title of the video is italicized because it is a stand-alone work. Since it is clear who conducted the interview, there is no need to include the standard phrase “interview conducted by Jimmy Kimmel.”
Note that the entry precisely reproduces the name of the account that uploaded the video, Jimmy Kimmel Live, which differs slightly from the name of the television show Jimmy Kimmel Live!
No. A works-cited list documents works. Since a museum visit is not a work, it cannot be cited. If you discuss in you paper several works you saw during a museum visit, you must cite each one individually. You can also cite a museum exhibition as a whole.
Read more on citing individual artworks in a museum and citing museum exhibitions.
There is more than one way to distinguish among several television episodes titled “Pilot.” Here are two options.
List each episode in your works-cited-list entry by title, as shown in the example below:
As explained in our post on citing works with identical titles and no authors, in your parenthetical citations, provide the title and then add in brackets additional information to clarify which source you are using—usually, the first unique piece of information, which in this case is the series title:
Alternatively, you could list each episode in your works-cited list under the director’s name:
Gilligan, Vince, director. “Pilot.” Breaking Bad. Written by Gilligan, season 1, Sony Pictures, 2008.
Von Ancken, David, director. “Pilot.” Hell on Wheels. Written by Tony Gayton and Joe Gayton, season 1, Entertainment One, 2012.
Wiseman, Len, director. “Pilot.” Lucifer. Written by Tom Kapinos, season 1, Warner Archive Collection 2015.
This method is preferable because in your parenthetical citations, you can simply list the director’s name to key your references to the corresponding entries:
The MLA follows The Chicago Manual of Style’s rules for hyphening number ranges in modifiers (“Hyphenation Guide”). When the compound is an adjective, the compound is hyphened, but no hyphen appears between the adjective and the noun it modifies:
When the compound is a noun, the entire term is hyphened:
The same principle applies to numerals (5-to-10-minute intervals, 9-to-10-year-olds), but the addition of a symbol, such as a dollar sign, reduces the number of hyphens needed. Just as the dollar symbol transforms a ten-dollar raise into a $10 raise, it transforms a ten-to-fifteen-dollar raise into a $10-$15 raise (“Hyphenation Guide”).
The Chicago Manual and the MLA recommend recasting where hyphenation becomes awkward (“Phrasal Adjectives”). An annual 1%-2% increase gains three hyphens when the time frame is incorporated into the compound, resulting in an awkward “1%-to-2%-a-year increase.” Avoid phrases like “a twenty-five-to-thirty-hour-a-week commitment.” Instead, try “a weekly commitment of twenty-five to thirty hours” or “a commitment of twenty-five to thirty hours a week.”
Read more on hyphens.
“Hyphenation Guide.” The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 7.89, U of Chicago P, 2017, www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/
“Phrasal Adjectives.” The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 5.92, U of Chicago P, 2017, https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/
No. When you cite a work, you should list the creator of the version of the work you are using.
Many works are based on the writings of others. To name a few examples, James Joyce’s Ulysses is based on Homer’s The Odyssey, Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea is based on Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre, and Sophie Hannah’s The Monogram Murders is based on Agatha Christie’s Hercule Poirot mystery novels. If you were citing the works by Joyce, Rhys, and Hannah, you would list these authors’ names in your works-cited-list entry.
If you wanted your reader to know on whose writings the works are based, you could provide that information in your prose or in a note.
Yes. Just as you would change an ampersand in a title to and, change an ampersand to and in a publisher’s name in your prose and in your works-cited list:
In your source: Farrar & Rinehart
In your paper: Farrar and Rinehart
As the MLA Handbook notes, “When a source carries more than one date, cite the date that is most meaningful or most relevant to your use of the source” (42). If you are citing a slide lecture uploaded to an online course, the most relevant date is the date of the course, since it is the date when the lecture was made available to the class on the course Web site. To see an example of a citation for material uploaded to a course, read our post on citing online lessons.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.