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How do I cite lyrics I heard from a song in a musical?

To cite lyrics you heard from a song in a musical, follow the MLA format template. Note that how you cite the lyrics will depend on where you heard them and the information provided by the source.
Live Performance
Let’s say you’re citing lyrics from a song in the musical Cabaret, which you saw in person. In the “Author” slot, list the name of the person who wrote the lyrics. If the lyricist did not also write the music, add the label “lyricist” for clarity. Then list the name of the song as the title of the source and the name of the musical as the title of the container.

Published 21 November 2018

How do I cite a scene deleted from a play?

Cite the version of the scene you consulted, whether a typescript from an archive, an online resource, an appendix to a print edition, or a live or recorded production that includes the scene.
If the version you consulted is published separately from the edition of the play you use, create an entry for it as well as the play:

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. Bookman House, 1998.
———. “Handout: Deleted Act 2, Scene 2.” English 101, La Posada High School, spring 2018.

When you are quoting from or paraphrasing the deleted scene, your in-text citation should direct the reader to the entry for the handout:

Miller, . . .

Published 12 November 2018

How do I cite the script and performance of a play?

The script of a play and each performance of it are different works and should be cited separately. Apply the MLA format template to the work to create your works-cited-list entry.
Published Script 

 Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.

Unpublished Script
Although the title of a published play is styled with italics, use quotation marks to indicate that a work is unpublished. You may use the optional-element slot at the end of the entry to provide supplemental information about the work:

Marino, Alex. “Ramona’s Umbrella.” 2015. Theatrical script.

To cite a performance of the same work, . . .

Published 29 December 2017

How do I cite a recorded performance of a play?

To cite a recorded performance of a play, follow the MLA format template. If you watched the recording on a Web site, list the Web site as the container, the name of the site’s publisher–if different from the Web site’s title–and the URL:

Munby, Jonathan, director. The Merchant of Venice. By William Shakespeare. Shakespeare’s Globe, Shakespeare Globe Trust, 2017,

If you watched the recording on a DVD, use the final optional-element slot to indicate this:

Radford, Michael, director. The Merchant of Venice. By William Shakespeare, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2005. DVD.

Published 23 February 2018

How do I quote stage directions?

There are different traditions for formatting stage directions, even in publications of the same play. When quoting stage directions, your aim should be consistency.

It is most common to find stage directions in italics, and you should replicate them:

After Levan states that Homais “faints,” the stage directions detail what happens next: “She sinks down in a Chair, he falls at her feet” (22).

If it’s not clear from context that you are quoting stage directions, indicate this in your in-text citation:

Manly’s scene concludes on a passionate image: “She sinks down in a Chair, . . .

Published 7 August 2017

How do I cite the program of a theater performance?

To cite the program of a theater performance, follow the MLA format template. Begin with a description of the program as the title and include any important identifying information in the description, such as the name of the theater where the performance took place and its location. Then provide the name of the program’s publisher and the publication date.
Program for Arthur Miller’s The Crucible at the Walter Kerr Theatre, New York. Playbill, 2016.
Cite a contribution to a program, like an essay, as follows:
Simonson, Robert. “Marquee Player.” Program for Arthur Miller’s The Crucible at the Walter Kerr Theatre, . . .

Published 20 April 2017

How do I cite a performance I watch in person?

To cite a performance you watch in person, follow the MLA format template:
Astley, Rick. Concert. 6 Oct. 2016, Town Hall, New York City.
If you are discussing a collaborative performance, generally begin with the title of the source. In the below example, the author of the play, the director, and the lead performers appear in the “Other contributors” position. Provide the name of the company presenting the work in the publisher slot, then the date of the performance, and the location:
Heartbreak House. By George Bernard Shaw, directed by Robin Lefevre, performances by Philip Bosco and Swoosie Kurtz, . . .

Published 7 October 2016

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