Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook.
For students to practice editing in-text citations
Total Estimated Class Time
Discussion and clarification of the MLA style guidelines
Course Work or Assignment Underway
This exercise could be introduced at any time during the semester but is preferable to assign while students are working on a paper that requires them to put sources into dialogue with one another and with their own writing.
Work Completed before Class
Read section of the handbook dealing with in-text citation (pages 54–58), as well as articles that cite sources in the text that are keyed to a bibliography (examples of any system of citation will work).
Instructor Preparation before Class
Write a paragraph (or model one on the handout I’ve created) that cites several sources keyed to a works-cited list. The paragraph should feature several errors, including common errors that students make, such as
- using incorrect punctuation, particularly unnecessary commas
- failing to distinguish among sources that are identified similarly
- citing a source’s title in the parentheses when the author’s name sufficiently identifies the source
- not indenting long quotations
- omitting the page number
- redundantly including the author’s name even when it is already mentioned in a signal phrase
- citing a source not included in the works-cited list
Print out copies of the paragraph and bring them to class.
Sequence of Classroom Activities
- Pass out the paragraph to students.
- Give students a few minutes to read through the paragraph and note down the problems they find.
- Ask for examples of problems. Clarify rules or questions as they come up.
Reflection on the Lesson’s Success or Alternative Approaches
The nice thing about this exercise is that students get to demonstrate their knowledge of citation practices, and the discussion is based on observations they make.
Carlos Moreno 09 November 2017 AT 06:11 AM
I appreciate this exercise. It's perfect for my high school seniors.
Yvette Saenz 03 October 2019 AT 11:10 AM
This is great! Thanks so much!!
Tom 12 January 2022 AT 10:01 PM
Thank you for this exercise. My students love it!?!
Carlos Romero 09 November 2022 AT 09:11 PM
Hello! After reading the answer key for the hand out (Implications of Dracula-Related Tourism), I wonder why no page number is necessary for these citations:
1. As a result, Transylvania is seen in Western, “Balkanist” discourse as “a sinister, remote and backward region where evil and the supernatural run wild,” (Light) just as Stoker portrayed it.
I think there should be a page number after "Light" since there is a direct quote there.
2. In fact, commercial tour companies have gone so far as to market Bran
Castle as the nearest approximation to the fictional Castle Dracula (Reijnders).
Like the previous question, why isn't there a page number after "Reijnders" if something is being paraphrased from this author?
I appreciate your support.
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