No. Do not use placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) and n. pag. (“no pagination”) unless your teacher asks you to do so.
(If facts missing from a work are available in a reliable external resource, they can be cited in square brackets; see section 2.6.1 of the MLA Handbook for more information.)
Yes. If an edition is named on the newspaper’s masthead, include it as the version in your entry. For more on versions, see section 2.3 of the MLA Handbook.
In its publications, the MLA uses the abbreviation US. (Practices among publishers vary, however, and it is not incorrect to use U.S. Whichever abbreviation you choose, be consistent.)
The MLA prefers to spell out the name United States in the main text of a work, in both adjective and noun forms. It uses the adjective form sparingly.
In the past, titles and terms in the Cyrillic alphabet were not italicized, partly because it is based on the Greek alphabet, which traditionally is not italicized (on this point, see Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., sec. 11.131). Letterspacing instead of italics was traditionally used to emphasize a word or phrase.
Today, Cyrillic cursive (the term italics is usually not used in this context) for titles and for emphasis seems to be used often in publications, including scholarly publications, perhaps because of progress in digital typesetting or because of a global trend toward standardization.
Note that there are many languages in the world that do not have an italic font—Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Armenian, for example. Arabic sometimes uses a typeface that slants to the left instead of to the right.
Given the complexity and specificity of historical, cultural, linguistic, and printing practices throughout the world, a writer should not use italics when a book title is in a foreign language that is not written in the Latin alphabet. If a work is being prepared for publication, let the author pass that buck to the publisher.
In the main text of your written work, use a suffix that is an essential part of the name—like Jr. or a roman numeral—when you cite a person’s name in full. Do not place a comma before numbered suffixes:
John D. Rockefeller IV
Place a comma before Jr. and Sr.:
Dale Earnhardt, Jr.
In a sentence, add a comma after Jr. or Sr. if words follow; the suffix is parenthetical:
Sammy Davis, Jr., was a member of the rat pack.
But see the MLA Handbook, section 2.1.2, on inverting such names in the list of works cited.
When doing so is useful to readers, specialists often supply missing publication dates, using a range of methods. For example, a medievalist with expertise in paleography might date a manuscript by looking at its handwriting. If there is a compelling reason to supply a missing date of publication by looking at source code, a specialist researcher can follow the guidelines in the MLA Handbook, section 2.6.1, and use brackets and a question mark to indicate that the information is supplied by the specialist and not certain.
No. The text should always key to the list of works cited. You can provide the key in the parenthetical citation or in your text. Below are two acceptable ways to cite the MLA Handbook:
According to the Modern Language Association of America, documentation should be useful to readers (MLA Handbook 4).
According to the MLA Handbook, documentation should be useful to readers (4).
The following two examples are insufficient, because MLA Handbook
, the title of the work that begins the works-cited-list entry, is not mentioned:
Documentation should be useful to readers (Modern Language Association 4).
The Modern Language Association of America says that documentation should be useful to readers (4).
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
Citing sources in your text is covered in detail in the handbook (pp. 54–58 and section 3).
The location of an online work is typically indicated by a URL or DOI, one of which should be included. If the work is paginated and forms part of a larger work, such as an anthology or periodical, you may provide the page range in addition to the URL or DOI. You may elect to do so if it is useful for your reader to have more information about the work—for example, about its length, its sequence in the collection, or the fact that it can be navigated by pages. The entries below, for a work in a single container, show two acceptable ways to cite a paginated article in a journal that is published only online:
If the work has more than one container and the location of the first container is a page range, as in the example below for a print work that later appeared online, do not provide the page range again as the location for the second container:
Yes. As page 22 of the MLA Handbook notes, the use of et al. for three or more authors extends to other types of creators and contributors. For a source that has three or more translators, give only the name of the first translator and follow it with et al.
Balibar, Étienne. Politics and the Other Scene. Translated by Christine Jones et al., Verso, 2002.
When documenting forthcoming publications in the list of works cited, use the word forthcoming in place of the date.