If the title of an essay consists solely of the title of a work normally styled in italics, the title of the work should be both italicized and enclosed in quotation marks:
In the essay “The Portrait of a Lady,” about Henry James’s novel The Portrait of a Lady, the author provides a detailed character study of Isabel Archer.
No. Since a compound formed by an adverb ending in ly cannot be misread, no hyphen is used:
She had a politically transformative experience.
Like other professional titles, military ranks are omitted before authors’ names in entries and when the authors are mentioned in prose, but you may indicate an author’s rank in a description:
William C. Westmoreland, a former United States Army general, describes his experiences in Vietnam in A Soldier Reports.
In general, lowercase generic forms of proper nouns:
But, as The Chicago Manual of Style notes, capitalize generic terms if necessary for clarity:
the French Revolution, the Revolution of 1789, the Revolution, the revolution of 1848
“Wars and Revolutions.” The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 8.113, U of Chicago P, 2017, www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/
The MLA has never offered guidance on formatting outlines. The seventh edition of the handbook notes that there are many types of outlines and that if you are required to include one with your paper, “your instructor will probably discuss the various forms of outline and tell you which to use” (44).
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2009.
Treat foreign terms according to the guidelines in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing:
Examples of terms, phrases, and abbreviations that would not be italicized include “concerto,” “raison d’être,” and “e.g.” (100). For help on using the dictionary to determine whether a foreign expression has been naturalized into English, see our previous post.
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2008.
If you need to cite a paraphrase and a quotation that occur in the same sentence, you may provide the page numbers at the end of the sentence:
Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” efforts were in their best interest (165; see 160-68).
You could also provide the page number for the quotation in parentheses and then insert an endnote about the paraphrase:
Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” efforts were in their best interest (165).1
- For Davis’s discussion of the strategies, see 160-68.
In an index or sortable list of titles, MLA style follows the The Chicago Manual of Style, which recommends placing initial articles at the end of the full title (16.51). A Tale of Two Cities would appear as Tale of Two Cities, A. Note that titles in indexes do not include subtitles unless they are “essential for identification” (16.55). If a subtitle is included, the initial article should be placed at the end of the full title, not before the subtitle.
In both indexes and works-cited lists, MLA style uses letter-by-letter alphabetization (MLA Handbook 2.7.1.). Note also that in works-cited lists MLA style would not move the initial article but would still ignore it for the purposes of alphabetization (see the works-cited list below for an example).
The Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed., U of Chicago P, 2017.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
Yes. By convention, the publisher’s name—if known—is generally given for print works, even if it is the same as the title of the work.