The MLA has never offered guidance on formatting outlines. The seventh edition of the handbook notes that there are many types of outlines and that if you are required to include one with your paper, “your instructor will probably discuss the various forms of outline and tell you which to use” (44).
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2009.
Treat foreign terms according to the guidelines in the MLA Style Manualand Guide to Scholarly Publishing:
In general, italicize foreign words used in an English text:
The Renaissance courtier was expected to display sprezzatura, or
nonchalance, in the face of adversity.
The numerous exceptions to this rule include quotations entirely in another language (“Julius Caesar said, ‘Veni, vidi, vici’”); non-English titles of works published within larger works (poems, stories, essays, articles), which are placed in quotation marks and not italicized (“El sueño,” the title of a poem by Quevedo); proper nouns (Entente Cordiale), except when italicized through another convention (SS Normandie); and foreign words anglicized through frequent use.
Examples of terms, phrases, and abbreviations that would not be italicized include “concerto,” “raison d’être,” and “e.g.” (100). For help on using the dictionary to determine whether a foreign expression has been naturalized into English, see our previous post.
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 3rd ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2008.
If you need to cite a paraphrase and a quotation that occur in the same sentence, you may provide the page numbers at the end of the sentence:
Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” efforts were in their best interest (165; see 160-68).
You could also provide the page number for the quotation in parentheses and then insert an endnote about the paraphrase:
Andrew Davis asserts that the strategies undertaken by the institution were well formulated but ultimately unsuccessful because the institution failed to persuade employees that the “preemptive” efforts were in their best interest (165).1
For Davis’s discussion of the strategies, see 160-68.
In an index or sortable list of titles, MLA style follows the TheChicago Manual of Style, which recommends placing initial articles at the end of the full title (16.51). A Tale of Two Cities would appear as Tale of Two Cities, A. Note that titles in indexes do not include subtitles unless they are “essential for identification” (16.55). If a subtitle is included, the initial article should be placed at the end of the full title, not before the subtitle.
In both indexes and works-cited lists, MLA style uses letter-by-letter alphabetization (MLA Handbook 2.7.1.). Note also that in works-cited lists MLA style would not move the initial article but would still ignore it for the purposes of alphabetization (see the works-cited list below for an example).
The Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed., U of Chicago P, 2017.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
To cite ephemera from a museum, follow the MLA template of core elements. The works-cited-list entry below is for a nineteenth-century cigarette trading card shown on the Web site of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York. The Web site does not indicate the name of the card’s creator or its title, so the entry begins with a description. The company that issued the card, Kinney Brothers, is in the “Publisher” slot, followed by the date of issue. Then the name of the Web site and its publication details are provided in a second container:
Cigarette trading card depicting a French fifer. Kinney Brothers, 1888. The Met, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018, www.metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/725138.