In our publications, we follow the recommendations in The Chicago Manual of Style (“Generation”). We generally lowercase generation names such as baby boomers and millennials, but we capitalize generation names that include letters, such as Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z. Student writers could follow Chicago as well or consult another reliable source, such as Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary.
“Generation.” The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec. 8.42, U of Chicago P, 2017, www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part2/ch08/psec042.html.
In MLA style, cf. may be used in parenthetical citations, but writers should take care not to use the abbreviation, meaning “compare” (from the Latin “confer”), when they intend see also. Whereas see also is used to direct a reader to a supplementary work, cf. is used to compare one source with another:
Diminutive staffs (between ten and twenty officials to inspect the nation’s multifarious workhouses) necessarily meant that much was left to “local discretion” (Fraser 53; cf. Wood 79–83).*
In the example above, the citation “(Fraser 53; cf. Wood 79–83)” means that Fraser is the source of the preceding borrowed material and that Wood may be compared with Fraser.
Yes. Databases house digital copies of works and supply the publication information for the version of those works that have been digitized, usually in PDF or HTML. They generally are not considered a republished version of the work, and so it is insufficient to provide information only about the database version. Thus when you cite the HTML version of a print article from a database, provide the original publication information that the database supplies—including the page range, if given—in the first container of your works-cited-list entry. Then list the name of the database and the URL in the second container.
The following example shows a quotation from an HTML version of an article by James G. Frycek contained in the database Academic OneFile. The publication information supplied by the database includes the page range for the original print article, so the page range is given in the “Location” slot in the entry’s first container. But since the version quoted has no page numbers, no page number is given in the in-text citation:
James G. Frycek and colleagues argue that “[o]xygen delivery is an important factor in promoting the proliferation and growth of aerobic microorganisms when biologically degrading chemical contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons.”
Frycek, James G., et al. “Aerobic Bioremediation: Progresses to the Next Level.” Pollution Engineering, vol. 36, no. 6, June 2004, pp. 16+. Academic OneFile, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A118494258/AONE?u=nysl_li_jhsch&sid=
Since a Twitter conference keynote will likely span several tweets, cite it the way you would cite a Twitter thread. Follow the MLA format template. List the author of the keynote, the text of the first tweet in the thread (shortened if necessary), Twitter as the title of the container, the date, and the URL:
@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam). “Thank you, @annetiquate & @caitduffy49 for the opportunity to speak today and to all of you who are participating. . . .” Twitter, 18 July 2019, twitter.com/roopikarisam/status/1151919685149036545.
You could also use a description in place of the tweet text:
@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam). Keynote for #HCTwitterConf19. Twitter, 18 July 2019, twitter.com/roopikarisam/status/1151919685149036545.
If the keynote is available on a site that collects Twitter threads, such as Thread Reader, list that site as the container and the URL for the keynote:
@roopikarisam (Roopika Risam). Keynote for #HCTwitterConf19. Thread Reader, 18 July 2019, threadreaderapp.com/thread/1151919685149036545.html.
Use whichever method will be most useful to your reader. If you are citing a report, for example, and there is only one report listed by title, it would be fine to list the work in the original script in your parenthetical citations, since your readers—whether or not they are familiar with the language—will be able to find the entry in the works-cited list:
A recent report noted that private elementary schools in Japan are proliferating (平成26年度調査 3).
平成26年度調査結果の概要(初等中等教育機関) [Heisei 26 nendo chōsa kekka no gaiyō (shotō chūtō kyōiku kikan); Summary of 2014 Fiscal Year Survey Results (Primary and Secondary Educational Institutions)]. Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, 19 Dec. 2014, www.mext.go.jp/component/b_menu/other/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2014/12/19/1354124_2_1.pdf.
If there is more than one report listed by title, and your audience is primarily composed of people who know the language (e.g., students in a Japanese language class, readers of a Japanese studies journal), you might still list the titles in the original script. But if your audience includes readers not familiar with the language, you might list the transliterated titles in your parenthetical citations so that all your readers can more easily distinguish the titles:
A recent report noted that private elementary schools in Japan are proliferating (Heisei 26 nendo chōsa 3).
It depends on whether the theory can be considered common knowledge.
When you discuss a complex mathematical theory, you should cite a source that explains the theory. As always, to create your works-cited-list entry for the source, follow the MLA format template and key your in-text citation to the first element of the entry. In the following example, the authors of the source, Earl D. Rainville and Phillip E. Bedient, are named in the prose, and this information directs your reader to their work in the works-cited list:
Earl D. Rainville and Phillip E. Bedient explain a “theorem concerning the existence and uniqueness of solutions” as follows:
In rough language, the theorem states that if f (x, y) is sufficiently well behaved near the point (x0, y0) then the differential equation
has a solution that passes through the point (x0, y0) and that solution is unique near (x0, y0 ). (19)
Rainville, Earl D., and Phillip E. Bedient. Elementary Differential Equations, 6th ed., Macmillan Publishing, 1981.
If, however, you are discussing a well-known theorem such as the Pythagorean theorem (a2 + b2 = c2), a citation may generally be omitted.
It is not necessary to credit the reviewers of an online article, since they may not have contributed any content, but if you wish to do so, list them in the “Other contributors” slot. If they did not play a role in reviewing the entire Web site, list their names in the middle optional-element slot after the title preceded by the label “reviewed by.” If there are more than two reviewers, list the first reviewer’s name followed by et al. If the date reviewed is provided, list it after the names of the reviewers:
“Vaccine Safety: Immune System and Health.” Reviewed by Paul A. Offit et al., 30 Mar. 2018. Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center/vaccine-safety/immune-system-and-health.
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