Create a works-cited-list entry for an interview as you would for any other source: follow the MLA style template. In general, treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then provide the title of the interview:
Saro-Wiwa, Ken. “English Is the Hero.” No Condition Is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13–19.
The interviewer’s name, if known and relevant to your paper, may be included in the “Optional Element” slot of the MLA style template (see pp. 50–53 of the handbook for a definition of this element). In this case, it is clearest and most efficient to place the name of the interviewer after the core element it relates to, the interview:
Saro-Wiwa, Ken. “English Is the Hero.” Interview by Diri I. Teilanyo. No Condition Is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13–19.
If the interview is untitled, follow the guidelines on pages 28–29 of the MLA Handbook and include the generic description interview:
Walcott, Derek. Interview. By Susan Lang. 22 Oct. 2002.
Reserve the use of the abbreviation et al. for the list of works cited and parenthetical citations. In the text, spell out the authors’ names or, if you are referring to a work by several authors, state the name of the first-listed author, followed by “and others.” For more on the use of names, see 1.1.1 of the MLA Handbook.
Hanging indention is still the preferred way to distinguish entries in the list of works cited. In its formatting guidelines and in section 2.7 of the MLA Handbook, the MLA recommends that writers indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry so that readers can spot where the entry begins. However, since it is difficult to render hanging indention on the Web, leaving extra space between entries will serve the same purpose.
At EBSCOHost, visitors can search for articles in a range of databases at once. When an article is retrieved, the database containing it is not always evident to the user, as the screenshot in our example shows. The identity of EBSCOHost as the container of the article is always clear, however. MLA style encourages writers to document the facts they observe. This principle is especially important online, where the presentation of information changes constantly. An advanced user of EBSCOHost who determines that an article comes from a certain database would not be wrong to cite the database instead of EBSCOHost as container 2.
Yes. The following corrections have been made in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook since its publication. This listing shows in which printing or release the changes first appeared.
Add shading to “1995” in the Ellison example.
In the index entries that mention URLs, delete 39 if present and add 49 if absent.
132, 135, 137, 139, 145, 146
In the index, under “Talmud” delete “abbreviations for books in 97–99” and change “titles of” to “title of.” Delete the cross-reference “Torah See Talmud.”
Emend Feodor to Fyodor.
Add cross-reference to sec. 1.5 (on time stamps).
Replace Fresh Air example with Allende example.
Emend wording to Penelope/Stanley example.
In the index, add, “, 49” to “blogs, URLs 48.”
In the index, add, “, 49” to “film, URLs 48.”
In the index, add entry “quotations, block 1.3.2-3.”
The first and second printings of the regular paperback and the first printing of the large-print paperback contain no label identifying the printing. In later printings of both editions, the printing will be noted on the copyright page.
No. The MLA Style Manual will be taken out of print. The system of documentation explained in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook is the authoritative source for MLA style as of April 2016. The MLA is in the process of developing additional publications to address the professional needs of scholars.
Yes. Two kinds of notes are suitable with the parenthetical citations used in MLA style: content notes and bibliographic notes. These may be styled either as footnotes or endnotes.
Content notes offer the reader comment, explanation, or information that the text can’t accommodate. In general, they should be used only when you need to justify or clarify what you have written or when further amplification of your point is especially helpful.
Example in Text
Jane Austen’s 1814 novel Mansfield Park begins and ends with the topic of marriage. In this regard it seems to fit into the genre of the courtship novel, a form, popular in the eighteenth century, in which the plot is driven by the heroine’s difficulties in attracting an offer from the proper suitor. According to Katherine Sobba Green, the courtship novel “detailed a young woman’s entrance into society, the problems arising from that situation, her courtship, and finally her choice (almost always fortunate) among suitors” (2). Often the heroine and her eventual husband are kept apart initially by misunderstanding, by the hero’s misguided attraction to another, by financial obstacles, or by family objections.1
See Green, especially 1-7, and also Hinnant, for further description and discussion of the courtship novel. Green considers Mansfield Park a courtship novel, including it in a list of such novels in the period 1740-1820 (163–64).
Green, Katherine Sobba. The Courtship Novel 1740-1820: A Feminized Genre. UP of Kentucky, 1991.
Hinnant, Charles H. “Jane Austen’s ‘Wild Imagination’: Romance and the Courtship Plot in the Six Canonical Novels.” Narrative, vol. 14, no. 3, 2006, pp. 294-310. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20107392.
In MLA style, bibliographic notes are best used only when you need to cite several sources or make evaluative comments on your sources.
For strong points of view on different aspects of the issue, see Public Agenda Foundation 1-10 and Sakala 151-88.
For a sampling of materials that reflect the range of experiences related to recent technological changes, see Taylor A1; Moulthrop, pars. 39-53; Armstrong et al. 80-82; Craner 308-11; and Fukuyama 42.
No. There are innumerable ways to weave a quotation gracefully into your prose. As long as the quotation’s purpose and source are clear, you need not use a verb like writes or has said.
The paired examples below illustrate alternative ways of identifying authors:
Author’s Name in Text
It may be true, as Sharon Lubkemann Allen maintains, that “in modernist works charting their own becoming in the context of urban crisis, the multiplicity of the self is concomitantly represented in urban space” (15).
Author’s Name in Reference
It may be true that “in modernist works charting their own becoming in the context of urban crisis, the multiplicity of the self is concomitantly represented in urban space” (Allen 15).
Author’s Name in Text
Deborah Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
Author’s Name in Reference
This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).
The ultimate goal is to be concise and to cite what is most useful to the reader. For quotations from a poem in a print or online source, there are three common possibilities:
If the poem is short (no longer than a page or its online equivalent), do not cite any number in the text. The page number or Web location that appears in the poem’s works-cited-list entry will be specific enough to identify a borrowing from such a short text.
If the poem is longer than a page (or its online equivalent) and is published with explicit numbers marking lines or other parts (e.g., stanzas, cantos, books), cite the line numbers and other part numbers but not page numbers. If lines alone are numbered, use the form “line 57” or “lines 119–20” in the first citation, and cite the line numbers alone, without the label line or lines, in the later citations. If other parts are numbered as well as lines, combine the numbers without a label. For instance, if books and lines are numbered, “9.19” means book 9, line 19.
If the poem is longer than a page and is not published with explicit numbers marking lines or other parts, cite page numbers (as you would for a work in prose) if the poem is in print. If no page numbers are present (as is often the case online), none can be cited.
No. News agencies distribute stories from a vast pool of journalists. The name of an agency is not a meaningful indicator of authorship. Moreover, local news editors may change stories that they receive from agencies, further muddying the authorship. If an article is credited only to a news agency, treat the article as anonymous and begin the entry with the article’s title.
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