No. For more on when to include and omit commas, see our post.
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No, but it’s always best to consult the original and quote from it directly, if possible.
Do not routinely capitalize the names of dog breeds. Many breed names are composed of proper nouns that you capitalize and generic terms (like retriever or terrier) that you lowercase.
Breed names are often composed of a place-name, as in these references to the breed’s country of origin:
Portuguese water dog
Sometimes the place-name refers to a region within a country:
A generic term of foreign origin might also be combined with a place-name:
Another formulation for breed names includes the name of the person who created the breed:
Jack Russell terrier
Many breed names are composed entirely of generic terms, even though the terms may no longer be common parlance or may be of foreign origin:
Yet other breed names are capitalized according to convention and for clarity:
Old English sheepdog
These same guidelines apply to other animal breeds, like cats or cattle:
Consult a dictionary like Merriam-Webster when you’re uncertain.
If a direct question contained in a sentence is long or has internal punctuation, set the question off with a comma and begin it with a capital letter:
The question posed to the MLA editors was, How should a question contained in a sentence be punctuated?
The teacher wondered, Will my students ever understand how to incorporate a question in a sentence, or will they always do it incorrectly?
A single question contained in a sentence can also be preceded by a colon as long as the word before the question is not a verb. The question should start with a capital letter:
The answer left us with another question: When can a question be preceded by a colon?
Use lowercase letters to begin questions incorporated in series in a sentence:
Should I punctuate a question contained in a sentence with a comma? with a colon? with a dash?
But longer questions in series are usually more appropriately styled as separate sentences:
I have several questions: What punctuation should I use? In what circumstances should I use it? What are the rules?
There are two ways to identify a translation in a Bible app: in the text or in the works-cited-list entry.
Translation Identified in the Text
Suppose that you wish to illustrate how translations of the Bible differ by comparing the recent New Living Translation with the traditional King James Version. One way to identify the translations is to mention them in your prose and then cite the Bible app in your works-cited-list entry as the anthology containing the translations:
For Matthew 7.7, the King James Version reads, “Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: . . . ,” whereas the New Living Translation reads, “Keep on asking, and you will receive what you ask for. Keep on seeking, and you will find. Keep on knocking, and the door will be opened to you” (Bible Gateway).
Bible Gateway. Version 42, Bible Gateway / Zondervan, 2016.
Translation Identified in Works-Cited-List Entry
If, however, you quote from only one translation in an edition of the Bible with more than one translation, you could list the translation in your works-cited-list entry as a work in an anthology. Follow the MLA template of core elements. List “The Bible” as the title of the work and the name of the translation as the version. In a second container, list the name of the Bible app, the version number—if given—and the publication information for the app:
Matthew 7.7 tells us, “Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you” (Bible).
The Bible. King James Version. Bible Gateway, version 42, Bible Gateway / Zondervan, 2016.
If you are a scholar citing a version of the Bible conventionally known by its title, such as The Wycliffe Bible, you might list the name of the version as the title of the source.
Style the name of a fictional character just as you would the name of a person: capitalize the initial letter of each name. Do not put a fictional name in italics or in quotation marks:
In an interview, the writer Stephen King said that one of his favorite books features a character named Margaret Ridpath.
If the title of a work contains the name of a fictional character, style the name as a name and the title as a title (that is, in italics or quotation marks):
Emma Woodhouse is the heroine of Jane Austen’s novel Emma.
Willa Cather’s short story “Paul’s Case” is about a high school student named Paul.
For a series name that contains a character’s name, see our post on styling the titles of trilogies and informally titled series.
Cite an artifact the same way you would cite a work of art found in a museum or online. See our post about citing artwork.
When a trilogy is published in one volume with a title of its own, the course of action is clear: italicize the title of the trilogy as if it were a work. Naguib Mahfouz’s The Cairo Trilogy, containing the novels Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street, is an example. So are Ursula K. Le Guin’s The Earthsea Trilogy and Pat Barker’s The Regeneration Trilogy. Margaret Atwood’s The MaddAddam Trilogy is another but different example: its three novels—Oryx and Crake, The Year of the Flood, and MaddAddam—are published not in one volume but as a boxed set (Anchor, 2014).
The question of how to style a trilogy or series of books or movies that has no official title is less clear. For example, would it be the Star Wars movies or the Star Wars movies? Your decision will depend on what makes sense for the particular body of work. Star Wars is the name of the first movie released in the series. Since the title is foundational, italicize the series name: Star Wars movies. If you are writing about the Nancy Drew books, style the series name roman, since “Nancy Drew” does not appear in the titles of the individual books. If you are discussing the Harry Potter books, you could style the series name either way—Harry Potter books or Harry Potter books—since the series is associated with the first title in the series (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone) and also with the character’s name.
The MLA Handbook gives examples of how original publication information can be provided as an optional element in a works-cited-list entry (53). But MLA style generally avoids annotating works-cited-list entries: if information is important for the reader to know, it belongs in your discussion or in a note.
For example, let’s say that you quote from the following version of Isaac Asimov’s I, Robot, a novel that was originally published as a series of short stories:
Asimov, Isaac. I, Robot. 1950. www.ttu.ee/public/m/mart-murdvee/Techno-Psy/Isaac_Asimov_-_I_Robot.pdf.
In an endnote, you might explain the original publication context for the novel, if relevant to your discussion:
The stories in I, Robot were originally published separately: “Robbie” appeared as “Strange Playfellow,” in Super Science Stories 1940; the others appeared in Astounding Science Fiction—“Runaround” (1942), “Reason” (1941), “Catch That Rabbit” (1944), “Liar!” (1941), “Little Lost Robot” (1947), “Escape!” (1945), “Evidence” (1946), and “The Evitable Conflict” (1950).
You may also discuss the publication history of a work in the text of your essay or article, if it is central to your point.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
When you cite from the same source in more than one paragraph and no other source intervenes, do you need to repeat the author’s name each time you start a new paragraph?Answer
As the MLA Handbook notes, “[W]hen an entire paragraph is based on material from a single source,” you might “define a source in the text at the start” (125). If you continue to cite the same source in subsequent paragraphs and no other source intervenes, you do not need to identify the source again unless ambiguity would result.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016.